This means that the antibodies induced by Qβ-IL-5 and Qβ-Eot are

This means that the antibodies induced by Qβ-IL-5 and Qβ-Eot are neutralizing antibodies and they can block the bioactivity of the corresponding cytokines in vivo. We also noticed that low numbers of eosinophils in lung tissue were still present. The pathological role of these eosinophils should be further investigated. In order to completely block the eosinophilia in the lung, a combination of vaccines AUY-922 research buy against eotaxin, eotaxin-2 and IL-5 may be beneficial.

The reduction of eosinophilia may not only have a role in the abrogation of acute processes but also in events further down stream such as repair and remodelling caused by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. As discussed above, a recent study in man has shown that even modest eosinophil depletion by anti–IL-5 was associated with significant reductions in tenascin and lumican deposition in the bronchial reticular basement membrane, two markers of airway remodelling [17]. Therefore, combined vaccination against IL-5 and eotaxin using VLP-based vaccines which induce high and lasting auto-antibody Proteasome activity titers against the corresponding molecules, abrogating eosinophilia, may prevent lung remodelling. To our knowledge, this is the first report which describes active vaccination simultaneously targeting more than one self-antigen.

The result shown here is of potential consequence for our continuously aging society. According to the World Health Organization, in the industrialized world, as many as 25% of 65–69-year olds and 50% of 80–84-year

olds are affected by two or more chronic health conditions. Combined vaccination against more than one self-antigen opens the possibility to target chronic diseases in which multiple factors are involved. these Moreover, this strategy could be used to target more than one disease at the same time. This project was supported by Kommission for Technologie und Innovation (project 6204.2 KTS-LS). “
“Malaria is the most devastating parasitic disease affecting humans. Each year there are 300–500 million new infections and greater than one million deaths [1]. Antibodies against blood stage antigens are thought to be important in immunity to malaria, since passive transfer of purified immunoglobulin from individuals with lifelong exposure to endemic malaria results in a marked decrease in parasitemia and resolution of symptoms in the recipients [2]. Parasite proteins expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes and merozoites and in merozoite apical organelles, including the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), are considered high priority antigens for blood stage vaccine inhibitors development [3]. AMA1 [reviewed in [4]] is a 72 kDa protein that is located in the apical microneme organelles and then on the surface of the merozoite [5] and is involved in erythrocyte invasion [6].

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