This part of the metabolic network is a starting point for a sens

This part of the metabolic network is a starting point for a sensory system and therefore an important element for the understanding of the coordination between metabolism and signal transduction. By analytical calculations for various model structures of increasing complexity, we explore for which kinetic Anlotinib reaction rates and in which parameter ranges the

resulting core models offer the decaying degree of phosphorylation that is observed in experiments. In particular, the consequences of allowing reversibility will be described and the role of the feed-forward enzymatic activation will be discussed. Finally, it is shown that the proposed model can be used as a generic basis for an extended and more realistic version of the network. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. To investigate hedonic reactivity and the this website influence Of unconscious emotional processes on the low sensitivity to positive reinforcement of food in anorexia nervosa (AN).

Method. AN

and healthy women were exposed to palatable food pictures just after a subliminal exposure to facial expressions (happy, disgust, fear and neutral faces), either while fasting or after a standardized meal (hunger versus satiety). Both implicit [facial electromyographic (EMG) activity from zygomatic and corrugator muscles, skin conductance, heart rate, and videotaped facial behavior] and explicit (self-reported pleasure and desire) measures of affective processes were recorded.

Results. In contrast to healthy women, the AN patients did not display objective and subjective indices of pleasure to food pictures when they were in the hunger states. Pleasure to food cues (liking) was more affected than the desire to eat (wanting) in AN patients. Subliminal ‘fear faces’ increased corrugator muscle reactivity to food stimuli in fasting AN patients, as compared Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase to controls.

Conclusions. The results suggest

that unconscious fear cues increase the negative appraisal of alimentary stimuli in AN patients and thus contribute to decreased energy intake.”
“Bone reacts to local mechanical environment by adapting its structure. Bone is also a key source of calcium for the body homeostasis. Osteocytes, cells located within the bone tissue, are thought to play a major role in sensing mechanical signals and regulating bone remodeling. Interestingly, osteocytes were also shown to directly participate in the calcium homeostasis by regulating dissolution and deposition of calcium in the perilacuno-pericanalicular space. However, it is not known if osteocyte’s roles in mechanoregulation and calcium homeostasis have any significant crosstalk. Previously, a multi-scale mathematical model of the interstitial fluid flow through the canaliculus was developed, which took into account physicochemical phenomena including hydraulic effects, formation of electrical double layer, osmosis and electro-osmosis.

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