Total PI3K Inhibitor Library supplier RNA was extracted from cells or tissues using Isogen (Nippon

Gene, Tokyo, Japan). Single-strand cDNA was synthesized using ExScript RT reagent kits (Takara, Otsu, Japan). Real-time RT–PCR was performed using an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA), with primers described in Table 1. Amplifications were performed in duplicate with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (Takara), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Target mRNA levels were normalized against β-actin mRNA. Bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC) were obtained from WT or FcγRIIb-deficient mice according to the method described previously [18]. The bone marrow cells were cultured at 1 × 106 cells/ml in the presence of 20 ng/ml selleck murine granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The medium was replaced with a GM-CSF-containing medium on day 4 of culture. On day 6 of culture, BMDCs were collected and CD11c+ BMDCs were purified using the autoMACS system. Sensitized FcγRIIb-deficient mice were injected i.v. with 1 × 106 CD11c+ BMDCs 24 h before i.v. administration of IgG and challenged with OVA for 3 days. All results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. A t-test was conducted

to determine differences between two groups. As measured values were not distributed normally and the sample size was small, non-parametric analysis using a Mann–Whitney U-test confirmed that differences remained significant, even if the

underlying distribution was uncertain. The P-values for significance were set at 0·05 for all tests. To estimate the effects of IVIgG on bronchial asthma, rabbit IgG was administered intravenously to the murine allergic airway inflammation model. OVA sensitization and challenge induced a substantial increase N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase in total cells in BALF. This was due largely to increased eosinophil numbers, which is one of the characteristics of eosinophilic airway inflammation in bronchial asthma. Administration of 1 mg of rabbit IgG before airway challenge markedly decreased the number of total cells and eosinophils in BALF (Fig. 1a) in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment, such as the same amount of IgM or F(ab′)2, did not influence significantly the BALF cell counts, nor did administration of 1 mg of mouse IgG influence cell counts. In the IVIgG experiment after challenge, rabbit IgG administration after OVA challenge for 3 days also reduced the number of total cells and eosinophils significantly compared with PBS-treated mouse (Fig. 1b). Because 1 mg of rabbit IgG suppressed airway inflammation sufficiently, we used this dose to analyse the role of IVIgG before OVA challenge in our subsequent experiments. Plasma OVA-IgE levels were also elevated in challenged mice. This effect was suppressed by rabbit IgG administration (Fig. 1c). Next, to assess the effect of IVIgG on AHR, the relative increase of Penh in response to methacholine inhalation was evaluated.

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