(Belmont, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions

(Belmont, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the adipokines and neuropeptide procedure was calculated: a-MSH (CV = 6.48%), NPY (CV = 11.91%), AgRP (CV = 13.47%), ghrelin

(CV = 6.82%), adiponectin (CV = 4.5%) and leptin (CV = 4.07%). For this study, the leptin data were analyzed according to reference values described by Gutin et al. [12] and the ghrelin reference value adopted was 10–14 ng/ml. according to Whatmore et al. [44]. All http://www.selleckchem.com/B-Raf.html abdominal ultrasonographic procedures and measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue were performed by the same physician, who was blinded to subject assignment groups at baseline and after intervention. This physician was a specialist in imaging diagnostics. A 3.5-MHz multifrequency transducer (broad band) was used to reduce the risk of misclassification. The intra-examination coefficient of variation for ultrasound (US) was 0.8%. US measurements of intra-abdominal (visceral) and subcutaneous fat were obtained. US-determined subcutaneous fat was defined as the distance between the skin and external face of the rectus abdominis muscle, and visceral fat was defined as the distance between the internal face of Dapagliflozin research buy the same muscle and the anterior wall of the aorta. Cut-off points to define visceral obesity by ultrasonographic

parameters were based on previous methodological descriptions by Ribeiro-Filho et al. [30]. Energy intake was set at the levels recommended by the dietary reference

intake for subjects with low levels Urease of physical activity of the same age and gender following a balanced diet [22]. No drugs or antioxidants were recommended. Once a week, adolescents had dietetic lessons (providing information on the food pyramid, diet record assessment, weight-loss diets and “miracle” diets, food labels, dietetics, fat-free and low-calorie foods, fats (kinds, sources and substitutes), fast-food calories and nutritional composition, good nutritional choices on special occasions, healthy sandwiches, shakes and products to promote weight loss, functional foods and decisions on food choices). All patients received individual nutritional consultation during the intervention program. At the beginning of the study and at 6 months and 12 months into the program, a 3-day dietary record was collected. Portions were measured in terms of familiar volumes and sizes. The dietician taught the parents and the adolescents how to record food consumption. These dietary data were transferred to a computer by the same dietician, and the nutrient composition was analyzed by a software program developed at the Federal University of São Paulo – Paulista Medical School (Nutwin version 1.5 for Windows, 2002) that used data from Western and local food tables.

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