(C) 2012 American Association

(C) 2012 American Association LY2835219 of Physicists in Medicine. [http://dx.doi.org.library.tamiu.edu:2048/10.1118/1.4752205]“
“As sessile organisms growing in an ever-changing environment, plants must integrate multiple regulatory inputs to promote the appropriate developmental responses. One such nutritional signal is cellular sugar levels, which rise and fall throughout the day and affect a variety of developmental processes. To uncover signaling pathways that modulate sugar perception, compounds from the Library of Active Compounds in Arabidopsis were screened for the ability to perturb developmental responses to sucrose

(Suc) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. This screen found that sulfonamides, which inhibit folate biosynthesis in plants, restrict hypocotyl elongation in a sugar-dependent fashion. Transcriptome analysis identified a small set of transcripts Napabucasin concentration that respond to the interaction between sulfonamide and Suc, including a number of transcripts encoding Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acids, negative regulators of auxin signal transduction. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport or genetic disruption of auxin signaling relieved this interaction, suggesting that responses to these two nutritional stimuli are mediated by auxin. Reporter systems used to track auxin signaling and distribution showed

enhanced activity in the vascular region of the hypocotyl in response to cotreatment of Suc and sulfonamide, yet no change in auxin abundance was observed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the interplay between Suc and folates acts to fine-tune auxin sensitivity and influences auxin distribution during seedling development.”
“Real world tasks involving moving targets, such as driving a vehicle, are performed based on continuous decisions thought to depend

upon the temporal derivative of the expected utility (partial derivative V/partial derivative t), where the expected utility (V) is the effective value of a future reward. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie dynamic decision-making are not well understood. This study investigates human neural correlates of both V and partial derivative V/partial derivative t using fMRI and a novel experimental paradigm click here based on a pursuit-evasion game optimized to isolate components of dynamic decision processes. Our behavioral data show that players of the pursuit-evasion game adopt an exponential discounting function, supporting the expected utility theory. The continuous functions of V and partial derivative V/partial derivative t were derived from the behavioral data and applied as regressors in fMRI analysis, enabling temporal resolution that exceeded the sampling rate of image acquisition, hyper-temporal resolution, by taking advantage of numerous trials that provide rich and independent manipulation of those variables.

Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG

Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that p38 MAPK phosphorylation the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects

of HF.”
“The assessment of indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration levels in dental settings has a big health relevance for the potentially massive occupational exposure to a lot of diverse contaminants. The comparison of the VOCs profile relative to indoor conditions and to the corresponding outdoor concentrations, as well as the discovery of possible correlations between specific dental activities and VOCs concentration variations are of utmost importance for offering a reliable characterization of risk for dentists and dental staff health. In this study we review the most relevant environmental studies addressing the VOCs contamination level in

dental settings. We analyze the methodological problems this kind of study must face and we report preliminary results of an indoor air investigation,

carried out at Nepicastat dental hospital in Italy, the “Ospedale odontoiatrico George Eastman” of Rome, in which general lines for the analysis of dental settings in environmental terms are sketched. The aim of this work is to identify the kind of problems a typical enclosed (non-industrial) environment indoor air investigation has to cope with by means of the analysis of a case study.”
“Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes buy GDC-0068 (DO) and DO co-cultured with cumulus cells in suspension (DO+CC) were in vitro matured (IVM) in the presence or absence of cysteamine (50 mu M). A beneficial effect of cysteamine was observed during IVM, because the nuclear maturation in the COC cysteamine group was higher than in COC control (P<0.05). In the control group, the absence of CC during IVM impaired nuclear maturation in DO when compared to COC (P<0.05), but cysteamine restored the ability of meiosis progression in DO, making them similar to COC (P>0.05). The coupling between oocytes and CC during IVM proved to be essential for the acquisition of oocyte competence to support early embryonic development, as COC had higher percentages of blastocyst and hatching when compared to DO and DO+DC (P<0.05). However, the inclusion of cysteamine in the IVM culture did not restore the acquisition of competence in DO and DO+DC, which remained similar to the control group (P>0.05).

We collected 296 adult and 145 nymphal ticks from the 70 captured

We collected 296 adult and 145 nymphal ticks from the 70 captured foxes including 193 Ixodes pacificus, 149 Ixodes texanus, 98 Dermacentor variabilis, and one Dermacentor occidentalis. There were seasonal differences in tick intensities, with most I. pacificus adults

occurring in winter and spring (P<0.001), most I. texanus nymphs in spring (P=0.03), buy BMS-754807 and most D. variabilis adults in spring and summer (P=0.01). Thirty-six (51%) of the 70 fox sera had antibodies against A. phagocytophilum., with a higher (P=0.24) prevalence in backcountry foxes (16 of 23) than in urban-zone foxes (12 of 31). Six (9%) of 70 fox samples were polymerase chain reaction-positive for A. phagocytophilum. Twenty-eight (31%) of 90 domestic clogs sampled from vaccine clinics within the study area were seropositive for A. phagocytophilum. There was a significant difference in prevalence between dogs and backcountry foxes (70%), but no differences were found between dogs and urban foxes (39%). We propose that gray foxes are a good sentinel species for A. phagocytophilum infections in northwestern California.”
“Previous studies on

the Thiazovivin ic50 bacterial profile of burong mustasa, a traditional Philippine fermented food, had been conducted using culture-dependent techniques. Since these methods may underestimate the total microbiota of a sample, a culture-independent study was done to determine the bacterial diversity in burong mustasa through molecular biology techniques. Bacterial DNA was isolated from fermented mustard

samples at different stages of fermentation. The isolated genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA). The 1.5 kb amplicons obtained were subjected to nested PCR using primers for the internal variable region of the 16S rDNA. The 585 bp nested PCR amplicons were then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to separate the different bacteria present in each sample. Distinct and unique bands in the DGGE profile selleck inhibitor were excised, reamplified, purified and sequenced for bacterial identification. Molecular cloning of the 1.5 kb 16S rDNA was also performed using the pGEM-T Easy Vector System. The cloned gene was sequenced for bacterial identification. The identified microbiota in burong mustasa at different stages of fermentation include lactic acid bacteria and several uncultured bacteria (initial up to the final stages); acetic acid bacteria (middle stage); and Streptobacillus and Fusobacterium species (initial stage). The potential probiotic bacteria found in burong mustasa are Weissella and Lactobacillus.”
“A retrospective study of paralytic rabies in cattle in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, diagnosed from 1978 to 2007 by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory (LRD) of the Veterinary School, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), with 77 outbreaks or isolated cases of paralytic rabies in cattle, is reported.

Fifteen percent of

patients meeting

Fifteen percent of

patients meeting learn more previous ATS guidelines failed to meet revised criteria due to a lack of honeycombing on high-resolution computed tomography and the absence of a surgical lung biopsy. Patients failing to meet previous and revised diagnostic criteria for IPF were younger. CONCLUSION: The revised guidelines for the diagnosis of IPF classify a substantial proportion of patients differently than the previous guidelines.”
“Aim: Obesity has been implicated in the aetiology of myelogenous leukaemia and myelodysplasia (MDS). We hypothesised that altered secretion of adiponectin and resistin may underlie this association. We thus investigated the role of both total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and resistin in MDS.\n\nMethods: In a case-control study, we studied 101 cases with incident, histologically confirmed primary MDS and 101 controls matched on gender and age between 2004 and 2007. Total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and

insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3) were determined.\n\nResults: Lower serum total or HMW adiponectin and/or resistin levels were independently associated with higher risk of MDS controlling for age, gender, BMI and serum levels of leptin, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 (p < 0.002). Although total and HMW adiponectin were both significantly inversely associated with MDS when Crenolanib mw modelled either in quartiles or continuously, HMW did not offer any substantial additional predictive value over total adiponectin (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.91 versus 0.93 for a 1 mu g/ml GSK2118436 clinical trial change, respectively). IGF-I was positively associated with MDS by bivariate analysis and both IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were higher in advanced MDS and higher risk stages, but were not significantly and independently associated with MDS.\n\nConclusion: Total and HMW adiponectin may have a protective role in MDS, whereas resistin levels may be decreased via a compensatory mechanism. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Gordon NM, Rudroff T, Enoka JA, Enoka RM. Handedness but not

dominance influences variability in endurance time for sustained, submaximal contractions. J Neurophysiol 108: 1501-1510, 2012. First published June 13, 2012; doi:10.1152/jn.01144.2011.-The purpose of this study was to compare endurance time and accompanying neuromuscular adjustments when left- and right-handed subjects used the dominant and nondominant arms to sustain submaximal contractions that required either force or position control. Ten left-handed and 10 right-handed healthy adults (21 +/- 5 yr) participated in the study. Each subject exerted a similar net torque about the elbow joint during the force and position tasks to achieve a target force of 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force (56 +/- 18 N). MVC force declined to a similar level immediately after task failure for left-and right-handed subjects (27 +/- 13 vs. 25 +/- 15%, P = 0.9).

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for internal carotid artery (ICA) peak systolic velocity (PSV), ICA end diastolic velocity (EDV), and ICA PSV to common carotid artery PSV ratio (PSVR) for 50% and 80% stenosis. Velocity cut points were determined with equal weighting

of sensitivity and specificity. Results: A total of 575 vessels were analyzed to create the ROC curves. A 50% stenosis analysis yielded ideal cut points for PSV, EDV, and PSVR of 130 cm/sec, 42 cm/sec, YH25448 and 1.75. An 80% stenosis analysis yielded ideal cut points for PSV, EDV, and PSVR of 297 cm/sec, 84 cm/sec, and 3.06. Conclusions: CIA-derived CDUS VC appeared to be reliable in defining 50% and 80% stenosis in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Although CDUS VC defined in this study were different from many of the previously published VC for the same percent stenosis, there were many similarities AP26113 to those reported by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound consensus conference. We feel that CIA should be the gold standard imaging technique for validating CDUS VC.”
“Contamination of fresh

and extended boar sperm often occurs in farms and artificial insemination (AI) centres during semen collection, processing and storage. The presence of bacteria produces detrimental effects on boar sperm quality, which may cause economic losses in reproductive centres. The present study has evaluated for the first time how the presence of Enterobacter cloacae affects the preservation of boar spermatozoa in liquid storage at 15-17 degrees C for an 11-day period. With this purpose, extended semen samples from seven healthy post-pubertal boars were artificially contaminated with different sperm:bacterium ratios (2:1; 1:1; 1:5 and 1:10) of E. cloacae. The 1:0 ratio (non-inoculated) served as a negative control. The most infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10) significantly damaged sperm motility

and membrane integrity, increased sperm agglutination, and decreased the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa. In contrast, the negative impact that the lowest bacterial concentration (2:1) had on boar sperm quality was clearly lower. In addition, other parameters such as pH were also more affected at the highest infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10), despite selleck no damage being observed on sperm morphology. In conclusion, the present work shows that damage inflicted by the presence of E. cloacae in boar sperm during liquid storage at 15-17 degrees C compromises the longevity and fertilising ability of seminal doses when bacterial concentration is higher than a 1:1 ratio. Further research is warranted to address by which mechanism E. cloacae impairs boar sperm quality. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In recent years, the RNA-binding protein quaking 5 (QKI-5) has been recognized as a novel tumor suppressor in many cancers. To date, no studies have examined the role of QKI-5 in prostate cancer.

Although most of these glycoproteins are produced in mammalian ce

Although most of these glycoproteins are produced in mammalian cells, there is concern that their large-scale production could be affected by an inadequate supply of bovine find more serum. There is also the risk of

viral infection spreading through the use of contaminated protein therapeutics. Consequently, protein expression systems in yeast have been established because protein manufacturing costs are cheaper than in mammalian cells, and yeast systems are virus-free. However, yeasts cannot generate human-type glycans, and thus cannot produce therapeutic glycoproteins for human use. There has therefore been considerable interest in glycan remodeling, from yeast-type to human-type. ‘Humanized’ glycoproteins can now be generated in yeast by disrupting yeast-specific glycosyltransferases and introducing genes responsible for sugar-nucleotide synthesis, its transported from the cytosol to Golgi lumen, as well as their transfer and hydrolysis. A compound that inhibits yeast O-mannosyltransferase

suppresses yeast-specific O-mannosyl modification, and can produce mucin-type glycoproteins. These systems are just being developed to the stage where the production in glycoengineered yeast of biopharmaceutical glycoproteins such as cytokines, antibodies for therapeutics, and enzymes for replacement therapy for lysosomal diseases are being evaluated for clinical applications. Yeast glycoprotein expression systems are expected to become the dominant approach for the production of human glycoproteins in the near future.”
“Cis-regulatory networks (CRNs) play a central role in cellular decision making. Like every buy DMXAA other biological system, CRNs undergo evolution, which shapes their properties SNX-5422 concentration by a combination of adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary forces. Teasing apart these forces is an important step toward functional analyses of the different components of CRNs, designing regulatory perturbation experiments, and constructing synthetic networks. Although tests of neutrality and selection based on molecular sequence data exist, no such tests are currently available based on CRNs. In this work, we present a unique genotype model of CRNs that is grounded in a

genomic context and demonstrate its use in identifying portions of the CRN with properties explainable by neutral evolutionary forces at the system, subsystem, and operon levels. We leverage our model against experimentally derived data from Escherichia coli. The results of this analysis show statistically significant and substantial neutral trends in properties previously identified as adaptive in origin-degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and motifs-within the E. coli CRN. Our model captures the tightly coupled genome-interactome of an organism and enables analyses of how evolutionary events acting at the genome level, such as mutation, and at the population level, such as genetic drift, give rise to neutral patterns that we can quantify in CRNs.

e , AT-AT, AT-TA, GC-AT, CG-TA, GC-GC GC-CG) using density functi

e., AT-AT, AT-TA, GC-AT, CG-TA, GC-GC GC-CG) using density functional theory (DFF). The proton affinity

of the DNA intercalator daunomycin in water was computed to be 159.2 kcal/mol at BP86/TZ2P, which is in line with the experimental observation that daunomycin is protonated under physiological conditions. The intercalation interaction of protonated daunomycin with two stacked DNA base pairs was studied through a hybrid approach in which intercalation is treated at LDA/TZP while the molecular structure of daunomycin and hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick pairs is computed at BP86/TZ2P. We find that the affinity of the drug for the six considered base pair dimers decreases in the order AT-AT > AT-TA find more > GC-AT >

GC-TA > GC-CG > GC-GC, in excellent agreement with experimental data on the thermodynamics of the interaction between daunomycin and synthetic polynucleotides in aqueous solution. Our analyses show that the overall stability of the intercalation complexes comes mainly from pi-pi stacking but an important contribution to the computed and experimentally Selleckchem IWR-1-endo observed sequence specificity comes from hydrogen bonding between daunomycin and hetero atoms in the minor groove of AT base pairs.”
“CORMIE, P., M. R. MCGUIGAN, and R. U. NEWTON. Adaptations in Athletic Performance after Ballistic Power versus Strength Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1582-1598, 2010. Purpose: To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Methods: Relatively buy Dinaciclib weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups:

strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Results: Both experimental groups showed significant (P <= 0.05) improvements in jump and sprint performances after training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P <= 0.

Platelet transport to the surface of a growing thrombus may be a

Platelet transport to the surface of a growing thrombus may be a rate limiting step in rapid thrombus formation, so accurate modeling of platelet transport may be essential for computational modeling of arterial thrombus formation. The presence of red blood cells (RBCs) in blood greatly affects platelet transport. In flowing blood, RBCs migrate away from the

walls and platelets marginate toward the walls. We investigate the mechanics of Selleck 3 MA platelet margination by direct simulation of cellular blood flow. We show that platelet margination can be explained by RBC-enhanced shear-induced diffusion of platelets in the RBC-filled region combined with platelet trapping see more in the RBC-free region. A simple continuum model is introduced based on the proposed mechanism. Using an experimental correlation for effective diffusivity in blood, the continuum model can recover experimental results from the literature over a wide range of tube diameters.”
“Objective-Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule produced by the plasma lysophospholipase D enzyme autotaxin that is present at >= 100 nmol/L in plasma. Local administration of LPA promotes systemic arterial remodeling in rodents. To determine whether LPA contributes to remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature, we examined responses in mice with

alterations in LPA signaling and metabolism.\n\nMethods and Results-Enpp2(+/-) mice, which are heterozygous for the autotaxin-encoding gene and which have reduced expression check details of autotaxin/lysophospholipase D and approximately half normal plasma LPA, were hyperresponsive to hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction and remodeling, as evidenced by the development of higher right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, greater decline in peak flow velocity across the pulmonary valve, and a higher percentage of muscularized arterioles. Mice lacking LPA(1) and LPA(2), 2 LPA receptors abundantly expressed in the vasculature, also had enhanced hypoxia-induced pulmonary remodeling.

With age, Lpar1(-/-)2(-/-) mice spontaneously developed elevated RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy that was not observed in Lpar1(-/-) mice or Lpar2(-/-) mice. Expression of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, was elevated in lungs of Lpar1(-/-)2(-/-) mice, and expression of endothelin(B) receptor, which promotes vasodilation and clears endothelin, was reduced in Enpp2(+/-) and Lpar1(-/-)2(-/-) mice.\n\nConclusion-Our findings indicate that LPA may negatively regulate pulmonary vascular pressure through LPA(1) and LPA(2) receptors and that in the absence of LPA signaling, upregulation in the endothelin system favors remodeling. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:24-32.

Previous research has shown that uninfected females, produced by

Previous research has shown that uninfected females, produced by antibiotic treatment, showed a decrease in fitness compared with those infected with Wolbachia. In this study, the effect of Wolbachia Belnacasan molecular weight removal on male fitness was investigated. Longevity and reproductive potential (mating competitiveness and sperm capacity) were assessed in both laboratory cages and greenhouses. No differences were observed between uninfected and infected males with respect to longevity, mating rate, sperm capacity and mating competitiveness in either laboratory conditions or

greenhouses. The preservation of fitness in males of Ae. albopictus deprived of natural Wolbachia infection is discussed in relation to the development of incompatible insect technique suppression strategies. Finally, the potential application of aposymbiotic males in mark-release-recapture studies is suggested.”
“Background and Aims Seed longevity, a fundamental plant trait for ex situ conservation and persistence in the soil of many species, varies across populations and generations that experience different climates. This study investigates the extent to which differences in seed longevity are due to genetic differences and/or modified by adaptive responses to environmental changes. Methods Seeds of two wild populations of Silene vulgaris from alpine (wA) and lowland (wL)

locations and seeds originating from their cultivation in a lowland Etomoxir chemical structure common garden for two generations (cA(1), cL(1), cA(2) and cL(2)) were exposed to controlled ageing at 45 degrees C, 60% relative humidity and regularly sampled for germination and relative mRNA quantification (SvHSP17.4 and SvNRPD12). Key Results The parental plant growth environment affected the longevity

of seeds with high plasticity. Seeds of wL were significantly longer lived than those of wA. However, when alpine plants were grown in the common garden, longevity doubled for the first generation of seeds produced (cA(1)). Conversely, longevity was similar FRAX597 cell line in all lowland seed lots and did not increase in the second generation of seeds produced from alpine plants grown in the common garden (cA(2)). Analysis of parental effects on mRNA seed provisioning indicated that the accumulation of gene transcripts involved in tolerance to heat stress was highest in wL, cL(1) and cL(2), followed by cA(1), cA(2) and wA. Conclusions Seed longevity has a genetic basis, but may show strong adaptive responses, which are associated with differential accumulation of mRNA via parental effects. Adaptive adjustments of seed longevity due to transgenerational plasticity may play a fundamental role in the survival and persistence of the species in the face of future environmental challenges. The results suggest that regeneration location may have important implications for the conservation of alpine plants held in seed banks.

Further, we determine that this dysfunction is attributable to in

Further, we determine that this dysfunction is attributable to intrinsic defects in diabetic BM-MPCs that are not correctable by restoring glucose homeostasis.

We identify two transcriptionally distinct subpopulations that are selectively depleted by both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and these subpopulations have provasculogenic expression profiles, suggesting that they are vascular progenitor cells. These results suggest that the clinically MG-132 molecular weight observed deficits in progenitor cells may be attributable to selective and irreversible depletion of progenitor cell subsets in patients with diabetes.”
“This paper reviews and compares systems thinking ideas originating from three individuals selleck chemical in diverse disciplines: American ecologist Bernard Patten, German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, and Austrian-born architect Christopher Alexander. From all three, stem ideas promoting the importance of differentiation (boundaries), connectedness, relations, and feedback. The congruence of these ideas formed independently,

in different disciplines, on different continents, at roughly the same time speaks to the deep resonance systems concepts have on understanding our world. Consistent as well, is the insight that individual objects emerge from the structural couplings of their physical and social environmental context. These systems concepts are applied here to classify diversity in a holistic and integrated fashion and then extended to inform the question of sustainability.

Sustainable systems are ones that are able to maintain coherent AR-13324 self-organization and simultaneously, recursively extend interactions to neighboring coherent wholes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process regulated by many signaling pathways; however, the mechanisms and cellular events that decide whether a cell lives or dies remain poorly understood. Here we showed that when a cell is under apoptotic stress, the prosurvival protein Survivin redistributes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thus acting as a physiological switch to commit the cell to apoptosis. The nuclear relocalization of Survivin is a result of inefficient assembly of functional RanGTP-CRM1-Survivin export complex due to apoptotic RanGTP gradient collapse. Subsequently, Survivin undergoes ubiquitination, which not only physically prevents its diffusion back to the cytoplasm but also facilitates its degradation. Together, this spatial and functional regulation of Survivin abolishes its cytoprotective effect toward the apoptotic executors and thus commits a cell to apoptosis. Our data indicate that the withdrawal of Survivin is a novel and active physiological regulatory mechanism that tilts the survival balance and promotes the progression of apoptosis. Cell Death and Disease (2010) 1, e57; doi:10.1038/cddis.2010.