During the BOT, mean stump pressure (MSTP) of the ICA was monitor

During the BOT, mean stump pressure (MSTP) of the ICA was monitored. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography at rest and during BOT. rCBF was determined using 3-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template (3DSRT) which automatically divided CBF into 12 segments. We defined hypoperfusion segment as BOT/rest ratio <0.9 or AI <0.9. Results: When the BOT/rest ratio was used as a hypoperfusion parameter, the number of hypoperfusion Lazertinib inhibitor segments was significantly greater in patients with an MSTP <= 50 mm Hg than in patients with an MSTP >50mm Hg. However, only

AI during BI 6727 BOT did not reflect MSTP significantly. Conclusions: The evaluation of CBF changes in BOT using 3DSRT and the BOT/rest ratio were useful because of objective comparison.”
“In adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls, postural imbalance is attributed to a sensory rearrangement of the motor system on the representation of the body in space. The objectives of this study were to test if the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) and resultant

body-head and trunk center of mass (COM) horizontal offsets were similar in able-bodied and scoliotic girls and if these offsets were related to the center of pressure displacements. A total of 21 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis girls and 20 able-bodied girls participated in this study. Their body COM position and that of the head and trunk were estimated according to Damavandi et al. (Med Eng Phys 31:1187-1194, 2009). The COP range and speed in both AP and ML axes were calculated from force plate

measurements in quiet standing. The AP offset of the able-bodied group was anterior to the body COM by 11.0 +/- A 15.9 mm, while that of the scoliotic group was posterior to it by -17.3 +/- A 11.2 mm. The able-bodied OSI-744 supplier group maintained their head-trunk segment COM more to the right by 14.1 +/- A 13.1 mm, while that of the scoliotic group was nearly over their body centerline. The scoliotic girls presented higher values for COP range and COP speed than the able-bodied girls. The resultant COM offset was correlated with both the ML COP range and speed only for the scoliotic girls. The small ML COM offset in the scoliotic girls was attributed to a compensatory action of the spinal deformity in the frontal plane resulting in a backward resultant COM offset to regain postural balance concomitant to an increase in the ML neuromuscular demand.”
“Introduction: Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output (CO) using bioreactance signals (NICOM) was recently validated in swine and human adults. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that NICOM flow measurements can accurately measure CO and detect acute drug-induced changes in aortic blood flow (AoQ)>= 10% in beagles.

1 mm; for VLBW newborns, 3 6 and for ELBW newborns 2 9 (p

1 mm; for VLBW newborns, 3.6 and for ELBW newborns 2.9 (p

< 0.01); differences that were statistically significant.

Conclusions: In low birth weight newborns, the diameter and depth of the RIJV is directly proportional to the weight of the subjects studied.”
“Gynaecological malignancies are most often diagnosed and staged by surgery. With the expanding evidence of efficacy and benefit of neoadjuvant this website treatments, such tumor confirmation and assessment should be ideally done with the least associated morbidity. Thus sentinel node biopsy has already been proposed for selected indications so that the morbidity associated with formal lymphadenectomy could be avoided in those patients without nodal metastases. The era of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (N.O.T.E.S.) heralds an operative methodology of ‘least

invasiveness’ that could be useful in gynaecological cancer. In this article, we present an overview of the staging of gynaecological malignancies with a focus on the potential applications and benefits that N.O.T.E.S. may provide in this field. In particular, we believe that performing sentinel lymph node dissection with N.O.T.E.S. could associate the low morbidity rate of the former technique with the minimal invasiveness of the tatter one and therefore consolidate the potential of this technique. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights GSK2879552 datasheet reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: www.selleckchem.com/mTOR.html Chest radiographs (CXRs) are used in tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys to identify participants for bacteriological examination. Expert readers are rare in most African countries. In our survey, clinical officers scored CXRs of 19216 participants once. We assessed to what extent missed CXR abnormalities affected our TB prevalence estimate.

METHODS: Two experts, a radiologist and pulmonologist, independently reviewed 1031 randomly selected CXRs, mixed with films of confirmed TB cases. CXRs with disagreement on ‘any abnormality’ or ‘abnormality consistent with TB’ were jointly reviewed during a consensus panel. We compared

the final expert and clinical officer classifications with bacteriologically confirmed TB as the gold standard.

RESULTS: After the panel, 199 (19%) randomly selected CXRs were considered abnormal by both expert reviewers and another 82 (8%) by one reviewer. Agreement was good among the experts (kappa 0.78, 95%CI 0.73-0.82) and moderate between the clinical officers and experts (kappa range 0.50-0.62). The sensitivity of ‘any abnormality’ was 95% for the clinical officers and 83% and 81% for the respective experts. The specificities were respectively 73%, 74% and 80%. TB prevalence was underestimated by 1.5-5.0%.

CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable CXR screening can be achieved with clinical officers. Reviewing a sample of CXRs by two experts allows an assessment of prevalence underestimation.

The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosme

The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. Cl 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.”
“The Tigecycline Evaluation LY2835219 and Surveillance Trial is a global surveillance study monitoring the efficacy of tigecycline and comparators against clinically important pathogens. Between 2004 and 2010, 3126 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from 66 centers in 13 countries in Latin America; of these, 1467 (46.9%) were resistant to methicillin. The main contributors

of S. aureus isolates were Mexico (n = 846), Argentina (n = 740), and Colombia (n = 445). The methicillin-resistant S. aureus rate was greater than 50% in five countries, the highest reported in Puerto Rico (73.9%). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus rates across Latin America ranged from 40.1% to 50.6% over the study period. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible

to linezolid and vancomycin, while 100% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and 99.8% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were highly susceptible to minocycline (99.2% and 97.0%, respectively). Latin American methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were highly susceptible to levofloxacin (94.6%) while only Blebbistatin purchase 16.2% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus were levofloxacin-susceptible. This study shows that linezolid, vancomycin, and tigecycline are all highly active against S. aureus from Latin America, regardless of methicillin resistance. (C) this website 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Fixed drug eruption (FDE) usually presents as a single oval to round violaceous patch after administration of the causative drug. We describe a case of FDE presenting with multiple annular erythematous lesions over dorsal

aspects of both feet following the administration of phenobarbital. To the best of our knowledge, such an atypical demonstration had never been reported. Fixed drug eruption should be considered in the differential diagnosis of annular lesions.”
“Background: Sepsis is a systemic inflammation associated with infection caused by pathogenic micro-organisms with high mortality rates.

Objective: In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Propionibacterium acnes-killed against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture.

Methods: The mice were treated by intramuscular route in 1, 3, 5, and 7 days before the cecal ligation and puncture induction. The control group animals received vehicle (saline solution 0.9%) and the animals of the treated group received the P. acnes-killed (0.4 mg/animal). After anesthesia, midline laparotomy was performed with exposure of cecum followed by ligature and one transverse perforation of the same, with a 18 G needle, for induction of lethal sepsis.

Design-Prevalence study

Animals-63 alpaca herds with

Design-Prevalence study.

Animals-63 alpaca herds with >= 12 registered female

alpacas.

Procedures-250 Cilengitide alpaca breeders were randomly selected from 562 eligible herds listed in the Alpaca Owner and Breeders Association membership directory and mailed a voluntary participation request. Sixty-three alpaca breeders participated in the study. From each herd, blood samples from >= 4 crias were tested for BVDV, BVDV RNA, and serum neutralizing antibodies against BVDV A region of the genome of BVDV recovered from PI crias was sequenced to determine genetic homology.

Results-Among the 63 herds, 16 (25.4%) had seropositive crias and 4 (6.3%) had PI crias. Infections in 3 of the 4 herds with PI crias were linked as evidence by the genetic homologies of viruses. In addition to PI crias, feeding supplemental colostrum was associated with herd seropositivity.

Conclusions

selleckchem and Clinical Relevance-Results confirmed the importance of BVDV infections in alpacas in the United States and highlighted the importance of determining the BVDV infection status of animals before they are commingled to limit exposure of herds to BVDV infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234:519-529)”
“Chemical investigations of the soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum, has led to the isolation of six cembranoids, two of which are new, Trochelioid A (1) and B (2), and one, 16-oxosarcophytonin E (3) isolated from nature for the first time. Additionally, two have been isolated from S. trocheliophorum for the first time (4 and 6). Structures were elucidated by employing extensive NMR and HR-FAB-MS

experimentation. (C) 2013 Ruboxistaurin supplier Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Under appropriate conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Penicillium chrysogenum were found to co-immobilize spontaneously with no need for external support or chemical binder. The main aims were to examine the interaction between yeast cells and fungal hyphae by electron microscopy and the death of the filamentous fungus because of direct contact between both microorganisms.

RESULTS: Immobilization was accomplished by orbitally shaking at 28 degrees C a culture medium consisting of yeast nitrogen base buffered at pH 7 and containing gluconic acid as an available carbon source for the filamentous fungus not readily used by the yeast. The yeast biocapsules thus obtained were hollow, smooth, elastic, strong, creamy-coloured spheres of variable size depending on the particular shaking rate and time of residence in the formation medium.

Distinct rectifying current-voltage characteristics are observed

Distinct rectifying current-voltage characteristics are observed for junctions between Zn-Co-O and n-type InGaZnO films, exhibiting a threshold voltage of similar to 2.5 V. P-type Zn-Co-O appears promising for thin-film electronic

device technology. AZD6094 molecular weight (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3415543]“
“Background: Biomarkers of iodine status are required to study iodine deficiency disorders in different parts of the world and to evaluate the effects of fortification strategies.

Objective: The objective was to assess the usefulness of biomarkers of iodine status in humans by systematically reviewing intervention studies that altered iodine status.

Design: We performed a structured search for iodine intervention studies on Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE (Ovid), and the Cochrane Library. Studies

were assessed for inclusion and validity, with independent duplication. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results: Twenty-one intervention studies (12 randomized controlled trials, 3 controlled clinical trials, and 6 before-after studies) were included in the review. Urinary iodine (in children and adolescents and in those with low and moderate baseline iodine status), thyroglobulin (in children and adolescents but not in pregnant and lactating women), SRT2104 order serum thyroxine (in children and adolescents, adults, women, and those with moderate baseline thyroxine status but not in pregnant and lactating women), and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (in pregnant and lactating women but not in children and adolescents or those at moderate baseline status), but not triiodothyronine, proved to be useful biomarkers of iodine status.

Conclusions: Despite the high risk of bias of many of the included studies, the results suggested that urinary iodine, thyroglobin, serum thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone are useful biomarkers of iodine status, at least in some

groups. High-quality controlled studies measuring relevant long-term outcomes are needed to address which biomarker is the most appropriate for assessing iodine intake in some population groups and settings. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(suppl): 2052S-69S.”
“Arabidopsis thaliana was thought to contain PXD101 in vivo two spermine synthase genes, ACAULIS 5 (ACLS) and SPMS. Recent investigations, however, revealed that the ACL5 gene encodes thermospermine synthase. In this study, we have established a simple method to separate two isomers of tetraamine, spermine and thermospermine, in extracts from plant tissues of less than 500 mg. Polyamines (PAs) extracted from plant tissues were benzoylated, and the derivatives were completely resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C(18) reverse-phase column, by eluting with 42% (v/v) acetonitrile in water in an isocratic manner at 30 degrees C and monitoring at 254 nm.

Kanzi had less O(2) anoxia at CA storage compared with Braeburn “

Kanzi had less O(2) anoxia at CA storage compared with Braeburn.”
“We apply luminescence imaging as tool for the nondestructive visualization of degradation processes within bulk

heterojunction polymer solar cells. The imaging technique is based on luminescence detection with a highly sensitive silicon charge-coupled-device Salubrinal ic50 camera and is able to visualize with time advancing degradation patterns of polymer solar cells. The devices investigated have been aged under defined conditions and were characterized periodically with current-voltage (I-V) sweeps. This allows determining the time evolution of the photovoltaic parameters and-in combination with the luminescence images-understanding differences in the observed degradation behavior. The versatile usability of the method is demonstrated in a correlation between local reduction of lateral luminescence and a fast decrease of the short-circuit current (I(sc)) due to the loss of active area. Differences in the degradation of photovoltaic parameters under varied aging conditions are discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3553864]“
“We describe

the presumably first intentional ABO-incompatible deceaseddonor kidney and pancreas transplantation with a severe antibody-mediated rejection during a rebound of isoagglutinins. Rejection was successfully treated with eculizumab, which inhibits the terminal pathway of complement. Complement CX-6258 concentration analysis (C3, C3d, g, and a modified assay of classical complement-related hemolytic function) documented complement

activation and confirmed that eculizumab completely blocked complement function. At 6 months, the patient had normal kidney and pancreas function, and histological evaluations revealed no evidence of sustained graft damage. This successful transplantation suggests that ABO barriers can safely be overcome without extensive preconditioning, when the complement inhibitor eculizumab is included.”
“Surface passivation has become an essential factor for translating high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cell concepts into industrial MLN8237 solubility dmso production schemes. In photovoltaics, a widespread method to determine the surface recombination is to measure the effective charge carrier lifetime from the photoconductance of symmetrically passivated silicon wafers in transient or quasi-static mode. In this work, it is shown how the injection history at the surface influences the transient effective lifetime measurement for several passivation layers. This dependence leads to systematic differences between quasi-static and transient measurements. The influence can be explained by charge trapping in slow surface states at the surface passivation layer.

RESULTS: Batch experiments were initially conducted to investigat

RESULTS: Batch experiments were initially conducted to investigate total phenols’ adsorption capacity on activated sludge (AS), olive pomace (OP) and powdered activated carbon (PAC).

According to the results, PAC presented the best adsorption capacity. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were also operated, treating municipal wastewater and different amounts of OMW. The first SBR contained AS (AS-System), the second AS andOP (AS-OP System) and the third AS and PAC (AS-PAC System). All SBRs operated sufficiently in the presence of 1% v/v OMW, achievingmean COD and total phenols removal efficiency higher than 86% and 85%, respectively, and satisfactory settling capacity. Increase of OMW concentration to 5% v/v affected the performance of SBRs, resulting in mean COD removal efficiencies that ranged between 61% (AS-OP System) Proteasome inhibitor XMU-MP-1 and 80% (AS-PAC System).

CONCLUSION: Among the SBRs used, the AS-PAC System operated

with highest performance in the presence of 1 and 2.5% v/v OMW, and showed better stability in the presence of 5% v/v OMW. Calculation of total phenols mass flux revealed that biodegradation was the principal mechanism of their removal. The highest values of mean biotransformation rates were calculated for the AS-PAC System and ranged between 2.0 and 40.6 d-1 for different experimental phases. (C) 2012 Ubiquitin inhibitor Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To translate the individual abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patient’s biomechanical rupture risk profile

to risk-equivalent diameters, and to retrospectively test their predictability in ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms.

Methods: Biomechanical parameters of ruptured and non-ruptured AAAs were retrospectively evaluated in a multicenter study. General patient data and high resolution computer tomography angiography (CTA) images from 203 non-ruptured and 40 ruptured aneurysmal infrarenal aortas. Three-dimensional AAA geometries were semi-automatically derived from CTA images. Finite element (FE) models were used to predict peak wall stress (PWS) and peak wall rupture index (PWRI) according to the individual anatomy, gender, blood pressure, intraluminal thrombus (ILT) morphology, and relative aneurysm expansion. Average PWS diameter and PWRI diameter responses were evaluated, which allowed for the PWS equivalent and PWRI equivalent diameters for any individual aneurysm to be defined.

Results: PWS increased linearly and PWRI exponentially with respect to maximum AAA diameter. A size-adjusted analysis showed that PWS equivalent and PWRI equivalent diameters were increased by 7.5 mm (p = .013) and 14.0 mm (p < .001) in ruptured cases when compared to non-ruptured controls, respectively.

Platelet activation in response to atherosclerotic plaque

Platelet activation in response to atherosclerotic plaque Apoptosis inhibitor rupture or endothelial cell detachment can result in pathologic thrombus formation and acute ischemic events. Current oral antiplatelet agents, aspirin and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists, are effective

but associated with bleeding as they target activation pathways critical for protective hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis. Each inhibits a single platelet activation pathway and does not impact activation by thrombin. The lack of complete inhibition of platelet function allows continued thrombus formation and recurrent thrombotic events. Inhibition of the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) stimulated by thrombin offers a rational strategy to achieve more comprehensive platelet inhibition when used in combination with standard-of-care, dual antiplatelet therapy. We expect that this new approach may mitigate bleeding risk, because PAR-1 is not essential for hemostasis.”
“Objective: To report the time of delay in thrombolysis of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: We enrolled 83 consecutive patients with massive and submassive PE from 8 hospitals between June 2006 and March 2009. We recorded the delay between symptom onset and thrombolysis. The clinical findings related to early thrombolysis (delay <= 2 days) were analyzed.

Results: Median of the delay in thrombolysis was 8 days with 82% over 2 days, 53% over 7 days, and 6% over 25 days. Compared to the late thrombolysis www.selleckchem.com/products/etomoxir-na-salt.html (delay > 2 days), patients with

early thrombolysis more frequently had murmurs at the tricuspid area (26.7% vs 6.1%, P = .053), less frequently had cough (20% vs 59.7%, P = .005) and increased P2 (pulmonic component of second heart sound; 33.3% vs 61.2%, P = .049), and more patients were thrombolysed in off-hours (86.7% vs 57.4%, P = .034). Conclusion: The time of delay in thrombolysis is too long and the symptoms and signs between early and late thrombolysis groups may differ.”
“Owing to its unique host cell-dependent development cycle, Chlamydia pneumoniae occupies an intracellular niche that enables the bacterium to survive and to multiply, secluded from both the extracellular and the cytoplasmic environments. Within its separate chlamydial inclusion, it is able to genetically switch between a replicative and a persisting FRAX597 non-replicative state, linking the pathogen to acute as well as chronic diseases. Although its role in acute respiratory infection has been established, a potential link between chronic vascular infection with C. pneumoniae and the development of atherosclerosis remains enigmatic, in particular because chronic chlamydial infection cannot be eradicated by antibiotics. C. pneumoniae has developed numerous mechanisms to establish an adequate growth milieu involving the type III secretion-mediated release of chlamydial effector proteins that interact with cellular structures and reprogram host cell regulatory pathways.

Summary

Fewer children in the USA have become living d

Summary

Fewer children in the USA have become living donors in the past decade. Preadolescent children in particular should probably be considered as potential donors only in extraordinary circumstances. Safeguards protect not only children, but transplant physicians, programs and the image of the transplant endeavor.”
“Objective: Determine whether

elevated second trimester maternal serum a-fetoprotein (AFP) is associated with clinical and histopathologic markers of inflammation at preterm delivery. Methods: 105 women <32 weeks’ gestation were included. AFP levels were dichotomized at 2.0 multiples of the median (MoM). Rates of neonatal morbidities, clinical see more chorioamnionitis, cord blood IL-6 level, and placental inflammatory findings were compared. Results: Thirteen (12.4%) had elevated AFR Fewer women with AFP >= 2 MoM had Cyclosporin A ic50 histologic placental or membrane rupture site inflammation, funisitis, or placental culture positive for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species, compared to those with normal AFR Neonatal death

was increased in the elevated AFP group (23.1% vs. 2.27%, RR 10.6). Elevated AFP was associated with a nonsignificant increase in indicated birth (54% vs. 35%; p = 0.225). Virtually all inflammatory findings were confined to the spontaneous delivery group. Conclusion: Selleck 5-Fluoracil Elevated midtrimester AFP conveyed significant risk of neonatal death, but was negatively associated with clinical or histopathologic inflammation in preterm infants.”
“Purpose of review

Because of the ongoing organ donor shortage, transplant tourism is occurring at an increasing rate both in the USA and abroad. To date, there have been little published data to help guide the programmatic philosophy of the USA

transplant centers regarding transplant tourism.

Recent findings

We summarize position statements from several transplant societies regarding transplant tourism and specifically transplantation occurring in China (because of the use of executed prisoners as organ donors). Transplant tourism is ever increasing and patients may be at risk for greater post-transplant morbidity as well as inadequate follow-up care. Transplant centers require some guidance with regard of how to deal with these patients.

Summary

Transplant tourism is an increasing reality facing the USA transplant centers. Most professional societies do not condone it yet cannot abrogate a physician’s right to care for such patients. Ethical principles mandate transplant physicians provide adequate care for returning transplant tourists. Better ways of assessing the scope of the problem are necessary.

However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosur

However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosurgical excision procedure and cold knife conization, are associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preterm labor and low birth weight. Methods of endometrial assessment have a high sensitivity for click here detecting endometrial carcinoma and benign causes of uterine bleeding without unnecessary procedures. Endometrial biopsy can reliably detect carcinoma involving a large portion of the endometrium, but is suboptimal for diagnosing focal lesions. A 3- to 4-mm cutoff for endometrial thickness on transvaginal ultrasonography yields the highest

sensitivity to exclude endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy can differentiate globally thickened endometrium amenable to endometrial biopsy from focal abnormalities best assessed by hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosing endometrial carcinoma, other than hysterectomy. (Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Few educational opportunities exist in paediatric cardiac critical care units (PCCUs). We introduced a new educational activity in the PCCU in the form of of patient-specific

summaries (TPSS). Our Ro-3306 objective was to study the role of TPSS in the provision of a positive learning experience to the multidisciplinary clinical team of PCCUs and in improving patient-related clinical outcomes in the PCCU.

Prospective educational intervention with simultaneous clinical assessment was undertaken

in PCCU in an academic children’s hospital. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/z-ietd-fmk.html TPSS was developed utilizing the case presentation format for upcoming week’s surgical cases and delivered once every week to each PCCU clinical team member. Role of TPSS to provide clinical education was assessed using five-point Likert-style scale responses in an anonymous survey 1 year after TPSS provision. Paediatric cardiac surgery patients admitted to the PCCU were evaluated for postoperative outcomes for TPSS provision period of 1 year and compared with a preintervention period of 1 year.

TPSS was delivered to 259 clinical team members including faculty, fellows, residents, nurse practitioners, nurses, respiratory therapists and others from the Divisions of Anesthesia, Cardiology, Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Critical Care, and Pediatrics working in the PCCU. Two hundred and twenty-four (86%) members responded to the survey and assessed the role of TPSS in providing clinical education to be excellent based on mean Likert-style scores of 4.32 +/- 0.71 in survey responses. Seven hundred patients were studied for the two time periods and there were no differences in patient demographics, complexity of cardiac defect and surgical details. The length of mechanical ventilation for the TPSS period (57.08 +/- 141.