Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011, 13:20871–20876.CrossRef 50. Weickert J, Sun H, Palumbiny C, Hesse HC, Schmidt-Mende L: Spray-deposited PEDOT:PSS for inverted organic solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2010, 94:2371–2374.CrossRef 51. Tao C, Ruan S, Xie G, Kong X, Shen L, Meng F, Liu C, Zhang X, Dong W, Chen W: Role of tungsten oxide in inverted polymer solar cells. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 94:043311.CrossRef 52. Hu Z, Zhang J, Liu Y, Hao Z, Zhang X, Zhao Y: Influence of ZnO interlayer on the performance of inverted organic photovoltaic device. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2011, 95:2126–2130.CrossRef 53. Musselman KP, Mulholland GJ, Robinson AP, Schmidt-Mende L, MacManus-Driscoll JL:
Low-temperature synthesis of large-area, free-standing nanorod arrays on ITO/glass and other conducting substrates. Adv Mater 2008, 20:4470–4475.CrossRef 54. Ren X, Gershon T, Iza DC, Muñoz-Rojas D, Musselman HSP mutation K, MacManus-Driscoll JL: The selective fabrication of large-area highly ordered TiO 2 nanorod and nanotube arrays on conductive transparent substrates via sol–gel electrophoresis.
Nanotechnology 2009, 20:365604.CrossRef 55. Hesse HC, Weickert J, Al-Hussein M, Doossel L, Feng X, Mullen , Schmidt-Mende L: Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effects of chemical structure on assembly and performance. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2010, 94:560–567.CrossRef 56. Brunetti FG, Kumar R, Wudl F: Organic https://www.selleckchem.com/products/GSK1904529A.html electronics from perylene to organic photovoltaics: painting a brief history with a broad brush. J Mater Chem 2010, 20:2934–2948.CrossRef Competing interests The authors
declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DCI, DM-R, RLZH and XR contributed to the manufacture of the nanorod arrays and solar cells. DCI and DM-R collected SEM images. JHL and HW did the TEM characterization. DCI, DM-R, KPM, JW, ACJ, HS, XR, RLZH and LS-M performed solar cell measurements. DCI Urease and KPM performed absorption and reflectance measurements. DCI, DM-R and JLMD drafted the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript. All authors read and FK228 cell line approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Graphene, which is an ideal two-dimensional (2D) system, has been attracting worldwide interest since its discovery in 2004 . While the sizes of mechanically exfoliated graphene are limited, its ultrahigh quality allows one to observe fascinating physical phenomena such as ambipolar characteristics , anomalous integer quantum Hall steps , Berry’s phase [2, 3], and fractional quantum Hall effect [4–6]. On the other hand, graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and epitaxial graphene can be used for potential device applications because the sizes of these systems should allow realization of wafer-scale integrated circuits based on graphene . When a charge system is appreciably heated by a driving current, the equilibrium between the phonons and the charges collapses.