These results provide evidence for a hypothesis of improper inhibitory control as a common mechanism underpinning abnormal visual and visuomotor processes in this mental disorder. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier
Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most important economic species in shrimp farming and are frequently exposed to multiple stressors (including temperature) in aquaculture. The differential expression of seven genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and stressor biomarkers was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in haemocytes and see more hepatopancreas and gill extracted from L vannamei following acute temperature stress. Temperature stress induced CAT, GST, ferritin and HSP60 gene expression in gills. Western blot results also revealed that HSP60 was induced in the same tissue after acute temperature stress. Heat stress resulted in an increase in most examined genes in haemocytes (excluding HSP60) suggesting haemocytes may be an early response tissue in acute temperature stress. GST was significantly
up-regulated in haemocytes (to up to 16.4 fold at 22 degrees C and 71.8 fold at 28 degrees C, respectively) during exposure to heat stress. In addition, MnSOD was more Torin 1 nmr strongly induced in haemocytes and hepatopancreas (to up to 273.8 fold and 115.8 fold, respectively) after exposure to 28 degrees C from 15 degrees C implying their important role in antioxidant protection in response to heat stress. The transcriptional responses of these genes to temperature stress will provide the basis for a multi-biomarker system that could be used for the biomonitoring of aquatic environments. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The lipid kinase PIK3C3 (also known as VPS34) regulates multiple aspects of endo-membrane trafficking processes. PIK3C3 is widely expressed by neurons in the CNS, and its catalytic product PI3P is enriched in dendritic spines. Here we generated a line of conditional mutant mouse in which Pik3c3 however is specifically deleted in hippocampal
and in small subsets of cortical pyramidal neurons using the CaMKII-Cre transgene. We found that Pik3c3-deficiency initially causes loss of dendritic spines accompanied with reactive gliosis, which is followed by progressive neuronal degeneration over a period of several months. Layers III and IV cortical neurons are more susceptible to Pik3c3-deletion than hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, in aged conditional Pik3c3 mutant animals, there are extensive gliosis and severe secondary loss of wild type neurons. Our analyses show that Pik3c3 is essential for CNS neuronal homeostasis and Pik3c3(flox/flox); CaMKII-Cre mouse is a useful model for studying pathological changes in progressive forebrain neurodegeneration. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.