CFSE-labeled T lymphocytes (4 × 107 cells ≥90% viability) were i

CFSE-labeled T lymphocytes (4 × 107 cells ≥90% viability) were i.v. CHIR-99021 research buy injected into recipient mice 24 h after the injection of OVA or saline solution. Recipient mice were euthanized 24 h after adoptive transfer and their pleural cavities were rinsed. Spleen T lymphocytes (3 × 106) were placed in the upper chamber of 3.0 μm pore diameter transwell tissue culture inserts (Falcon). Transwell inserts were placed in the individual wells of a 24-well cell culture plate containing assay buffer or the following stimuli: rmCCL25 (100 ng/mL); rmCCL20, 5 ng/mL (R&D Systems);

OPW or OPW plus anti-CCL20 mAb (5 μg/mL) and incubated for 2 h (37°C, 5% CO2). In a set of experiments, T lymphocytes were preincubated with anti-CCR9 blocking Ab (5 μg/well; Santa Cruz) for 30 min at 37°C. Migrated

cells were labeled as described above, and analyzed by using a flow cytometer (FACScalibur flow cytometer, Becton Dickinson). Results are expressed as chemotactic index, generated by using the number of cells that migrated toward buffer as comparison. T lymphocytes recovered from previously immunized mouse spleens (106 per well) were Topoisomerase inhibitor stimulated with rmCCL25 (100 ng/mL) or anti-TCRγδ mAb (10 μg/mL) in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS for 18 h in the presence of brefeldin A (10 μg/mL). After incubation, cells were stained for flow cytometry. Data are reported as the mean ± SEM and were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman–Keuls–Student test or Student’s t-test. Values of p ≤ 0.05 clonidine were regarded as significant. Dr. Claudio Canetti (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr. Patricia Bozza (Fundação

Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil), and Dr. Bruno Silva-Santos (Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Portugal) for the critical reading of the manuscript and helpful suggestions. This work was supported by Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Programa Estratégico de Apoio à Pesquisa em Saúde (PAPES)/Conselho de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. Disclaimer: Supplementary materials have been peer-reviewed but not copyedited. Figure S1. CCL25 induces y5 T-cell transmigration mediated by a4p7 integrin. Figure S2. Effect of in vivo pretreatment with anti-CCL25 mAb on OVA-induced IFN-y+ or IL-4+ y5 T lymphocyte accumulation. Figure S3. CCL20 neutralization decreases IL-17+ y5 T-cell chemotaxis toward OPW. Figure S4. Expression of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR6, and CCR9 by a4p7+y5T lymphocytes. Figure S5. Gating strategy used for flow cytometry analysis of y5 cells expressing CCR6, CCR9, and a4p7 integrin. “
“The interaction between BAFF and BAFF-R is crucial for the development of mature B cells.

Comments are closed.