Data analysis Values were reported as mean ± SEM Statistical ana

Data analysis Values were reported as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis was conducted using JMP software (SAS Institute). Student’s t-test was used for comparisons between groups and differences were considered to be statistically significant with P value less than 0.05. Acknowledgements We thank Dr. Chao-Ying Chen (National Taiwan University) for providing

plasmid pST1, Dr. Hua-Lin Wu for providing HUVECs, Dr. Jiunn-Jong GDC-0449 research buy Wu for providing anti-OmpA antibody, Dr. Ming-Jer Tang for discussion, and Dr. Jon Courtenay for critical IWP-2 cell line reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from National Science Council of Taiwan (98-2627-M-006-015). References 1. Stevens DL: Invasive group A streptococcus infections. Clin Infect Dis 1992,14(1):2–11.PubMedCrossRef

2. Norrby-Teglund A, Kotb M: Host-microbe interactions SAR302503 manufacturer in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections. J Med Microbiol 2000,49(10):849–852.PubMed 3. Hasty DL, Ofek I, Courtney HS, Doyle RJ: Multiple adhesins of streptococci. Infect Immun 1992,60(6):2147–2152.PubMed 4. Fischetti VA: Surface proteins on gram-positive bacteria. In Gram-positive pathogens. Edited by: Fischetti VA, Novick RP, Ferretti JJ Portnoy DA, Rood JI. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology Press; 2000:11–24. 5. Rasmussen M, Eden A, Bjorck L: SclA, a novel collagen-like surface protein of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun 2000,68(11):6370–6377.PubMedCrossRef 6. Lukomski S, Nakashima K, Abdi I, Cipriano VJ, Ireland RM, Reid SD, Adams GG, Musser JM: Identification and characterization of the scl gene encoding a group A Streptococcus extracellular

protein virulence factor with similarity to human collagen. Infect Immun 2000,68(12):6542–6553.PubMedCrossRef 7. Lukomski S, Nakashima K, Abdi I, Cipriano Astemizole VJ, Shelvin BJ, Graviss EA, Musser JM: Identification and characterization of a second extracellular collagen-like protein made by group A Streptococcus: control of production at the level of translation. Infect Immun 2001,69(3):1729–1738.PubMedCrossRef 8. Xu Y, Keene DR, Bujnicki JM, Hook M, Lukomski S: Streptococcal Scl1 and Scl2 proteins form collagen-like triple helices. J Biol Chem 2002,277(30):27312–27318.PubMedCrossRef 9. Humtsoe JO, Kim JK, Xu Y, Keene DR, Hook M, Lukomski S, Wary KK: A streptococcal collagen-like protein interacts with the alpha2beta1 integrin and induces intracellular signaling. J Biol Chem 2005,280(14):13848–13857.PubMedCrossRef 10. Whatmore AM: Streptococcus pyogenes sclB encodes a putative hypervariable surface protein with a collagen-like repetitive structure. Microbiology 2001,147(Pt 2):419–429.PubMed 11. Camper L, Hellman U, Lundgren-Akerlund E: Isolation, cloning, and sequence analysis of the integrin subunit alpha10, a beta1-associated collagen binding integrin expressed on chondrocytes. J Biol Chem 1998,273(32):20383–20389.PubMedCrossRef 12.

Comments are closed.