The Zhoushan region is located in eastern China in the northeaste

The Zhoushan region is located in eastern China in the northeastern region of the province of Zhejiang. The study was carried out in the obstetrical wards of Zhoushan Women’s & Children’s Health Hospital, a major maternal and child health hospital in Zhoushan city. From July 2005 to October 2006, every month approximately 30 pregnant women were recruited at their first or second prenatal medical examination, and the total study cohort consisted of 440 women. Neurobehavioral development of the neonates was assessed at 3 days of age using the Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA). Mothers and neonates with disorders highly associated with adverse neurodevelopment such as traumatic brain

injury, meningitis, epilepsy, and severe neonatal illnesses were excluded from the study after delivery. Sixteen infants were excluded because of preexisting or acquired medical problems that may seriously affect development. Six mothers were excluded because of incomplete PI3K Inhibitor Library manufacturer questionnaires. In total, 418 mother-neonate pairs were included in the study after written consent

was obtained, and they completed questionnaires. The study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Zhoushan Women’s and Children’s Health Hospital. A detailed questionnaire was administered to collect information on fish consumption and the general nutritional status of the mothers during the third trimesters of pregnancy. All mothers were asked to estimate the quantity and type of fish consumption in a week. In addition, the questionnaire included questions regarding potential confounding factors such as demographic data, maternal education, abortion history, use of skin whitening cosmetics, dental amalgam treatment, occupational exposures, monthly household income per capita and/or month, and some paternal-related information. All questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers. Prenatal mercury exposure was assessed by measuring mercury concentrations in maternal blood, hair, urine, and neonate cord blood. Maternal hair samples were collected about 1-3 days

after delivery. The samples in the proximal 3 cm length to the scalp and weighing 0.5-0.75 g were collected for mercury concentration. selleckchem All samples were handled in a class 100 clean hood. Approximately 0.3 g of hair weighed in a quartz boat. We precleaned plastic and glassware by soaking them in 10% HNO3 for 24 hours and then rinsing them several times with deionized water. Hair samples were sonicated for 15 minutes in approximately 10 mL of 1% Triton X-100 solution in precleaned 50-mL Pyrex beakers. After sonication, samples were rinsed several times with distilled deionized water and dried at 60°C for 24 hours. Urine specimens from the first morning voided urine samples (approximately 50 mL) were collected over a period of 24 hours in polypropylene vessels in the third trimester of pregnancy.

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