10 and 11 Chronic pain is also associated with many secondary str

10 and 11 Chronic pain is also associated with many secondary stressors such as sleep disruption, unemployment and interpersonal tensions.12 Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by profound disabling fatigue lasting at least 6 months and accompanied by numerous symptoms such as pain,

sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment.13 Chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue also have personal economic, psychological and social consequences for the affected individuals.12, R428 mouse 14 and 15 One in three people with pain or fatigue disorders is unable or less able to maintain an independent lifestyle11 and 50 to 66% of people suffering from chronic pain are less able or unable to exercise, enjoy normal sleep, perform household chores, attend social activities, drive a car, walk or have sexual relations.16 Although key risk factors have been selleck products identified, the incidence of chronic pain, fibromyalgia and fatigue disorders has been increasing, rendering their management a persistent challenge.14 Fear avoidance models emphasise psychological distress, pain-related anxiety,

anxiety sensitivity, fear of illness/injury, fear of re-injury and catastrophising in the development and maintenance of disabling chronic pain.17 International and national guidelines recommend graded activity and graded exposure in the treatment of chronic disorders.15, 18, 19, 20 and 21 The validity of self-reported assessment of pain and physical disability is controversial. The level of pain reported by people with chronic pain is not always related to their reports of their physical disability. Nevertheless, pain, fear of pain and its consequences are subjective experiences and are difficult to assess.22 Observational measures may be useful to corroborate subjective

reports when Dipeptidyl peptidase evaluating each person’s capability.23 and 24 Ideally, evaluation of physical function in people with chronic pain and chronic fatigue disorders should rely on a combination of clinical assessment of impairments, behavioural observation of physical function, and self-report.25 Despite this, there is limited evidence about the acceptability, reliability and validity of submaximal and maximal exercise tests measuring physical fitness and capacity in this group of people. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal testing with calorimetry is considered to be the gold standard.26 and 27 However, outcomes of this measurement are strongly influenced by motivation, fear and pain.26 Furthermore, outcomes are invalid when fear and pain expectation rather than aerobic capacity limit performance.28 In one study, over 90% of the variance in performance among disabled individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain was predicted by psychosocial factors like self-efficacy, perceived emotional and physical functioning, pain intensity and pain cognition.

Comments are closed.