175-0.503 nmol/min/mg of ALDH3A1), and K-m values of 4.01, 46.5, 818 and 5.75 x 10(3) mu M, respectively. However, activation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) by ALDH3A1 was undetectable in vitro. ALDH3A1
was also shown to denitrate NTG, producing primarily glyceryl 1,2-dinitrate (1,2-GDN) in preference to glyceryl 1,3-dinitrate (1,3-GDN). Therefore, ALDH3A1 may contribute to the bioactivation of ORNs in vivo. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Hyperactivity ASP2215 in vivo of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increased levels of glucocorticoid hormones in patients with depression have mostly been ascribed to impaired feedback regulation of the HPA axis, possibly caused by altered function of the receptor for glucocorticoid hormones, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Antidepressants, in turn, ameliorate many of the neurobiological disturbances in depression, including HPA axis hyperactivity, and thereby alleviate depressive symptoms. There is strong evidence for the notion that antidepressants exert these effects by modulating the GR. Such modulations, however, can be manifold and range from regulation of receptor expression to post-translational modifications, which
may result in differences in GR nuclear translocation and GR-dependent gene transcription. The idea that the therapeutic action of antidepressants is mediated, at least in part, by restoring GR function, is consistent with studies showing that decreased GR function contributes to MK-0518 molecular weight HPA axis hyperactivity and to the development of depressive symptoms. Conversely, excessive glucocorticoid signalling, which requires an active GR, is associated
with functional impairments in the depressed brain, especially in the hippocampus, where it results in reduced neurogenesis and impaired neuroplasticity. In this review, we will focus on the GR as a key player in the precipitation, development and resolution of depression. We will discuss potential explanations for the apparent controversy between glucocorticoid resistance www.selleck.co.jp/products/BIBF1120.html and the detrimental effects of excessive glucocorticoid signalling. We will review some of the evidence for modulation of the GR by antidepressants and we will provide further insight into how antidepressants may regulate the GR to overcome depressive symptoms. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study determined the incidence and characteristics of recurrent disease after femoropopliteal angioplasty, following either selective or routine stenting of diseased site(s).
Methods: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database for femoropopliteal interventions from June 2003 to July 2010 was performed.