35 These results BMS-777607 research buy were supported by a study36 that showed low total magnesium in erythrocytes and low ionized magnesium in lymphocytes in migraine patients, both of which increased significantly after a 2-week trial of drinking mineral water containing 110 mg/L magnesium. Given its commercial availability, the RBC magnesium assay may therefore
be a good way of assessing for deficiency. Future trials should focus on patients with deficiencies in ionized or RBC magnesium, as improvements in clinical symptoms correlating with corrected levels would clearly demonstrate the benefits of magnesium supplementation. Treatment With Oral Magnesium Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) DAPT price have shown that Mg2+ supplementation is effective in migraine treatment. In the first, 24 women with menstrual migraine31 received either 360 mg of magnesium pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or placebo in 3 divided doses. Women received 2 cycles of study medication, taken daily from ovulation to the
first day of flow. Magnesium treatment resulted in a significant reduction of the number of days with headache (P < .1), total pain index (P > .03), as well as an improvement of the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire score in the treatment group compared to placebo. A larger study comprising 81 migraineurs also showed a significant improvement in patients who received magnesium.37 Attack frequency was reduced by 41.6% in the magnesium group and by 15.8% in the placebo group. The active
treatment group received 600 mg of trimagnesium dicitrate in a water-soluble granular powder taken every morning. More recently, Aldehyde dehydrogenase Koseoglu et al38 studied the prophylactic effects of 600 mg/day of oral magnesium citrate supplementation in patients with migraine without aura and found that active treatment resulted in a significant decrease in migraine attack frequency and severity. A 4th RCT showed no effect of oral magnesium on migraine.39 This negative result was likely because of the use of a poorly absorbed magnesium salt, as diarrhea occurred in almost half of patients in the treatment group. The most common adverse effect associated with oral magnesium supplementation is diarrhea. While diarrhea itself usually prevents the development of magnesium-related toxicity, patients should be cautioned about this side effect. Magnesium toxicity is marked by the loss of deep tendon reflexes followed by muscle weakness. Severe toxicity can lead to cardiac muscle weakness, respiratory paralysis, and death. Patients with kidney disease are at higher risk of developing toxicity as magnesium is excreted through the kidneys.40 Treatment With Intravenous Magnesium Several studies have evaluated the use of intravenous magnesium in acute migraine treatment, with conflicting results.