3B and C) Among subjects with detectable virus-specific IL-10+ C

3B and C). Among subjects with detectable virus-specific IL-10+ CD8+ T cells, co-production of IFN-γ was observed in the majority of CMV-specific cells, while only a minority of HCV-specific IL-10+ CD8+ T cells co-produced IFN-γ (Fig. 3D). In contrast

to HIV-1, the expression of FoxP3 and CD25 in these CMV- and HCV-specific populations was heterogeneous (Fig. 3E). HIV-1-specific IL-10+ T cells have been defined as immunosuppressive on the basis of the effects of their depletion on other HIV-specific T-cell populations, such as enhancement of cytolytic, proliferative and IL-2-producing capacities in vitro [6, 21]. However, interpretation of these data could be confounded by the method of depletion used, which would have led to removal of spontaneous IL-10-producing cells

(monocytes and B cells) in addition click here to virus-specific T cells (Supporting Information Fig. 1). Obeticholic Acid price To address this, we examined the effects of selectively depleting HIV-specific IL-10+ CD8+ T cells on the responses of other T cells and of peripheral blood monocytes following stimulation with HIV-1 gag peptides (see Materials and methods and schema in Fig. 4A). We confirmed that removal of the CD8+ IL-10-producing T-cell population resulted in a decrease in IL-10 accumulating in the supernatant during subsequent culture (Fig. 4B). The depletion of IL-10+ CD8+ cells led to a small but statistically significant increase in the frequency of activated (CD38+ HLA-DR+) CD8+

T cells after Digestive enzyme subsequent culture (Fig. 4C) but had no effect on the activation of CD4+ T cells, as indicated by expression of CD38 and HLA-DR (Supporting Information Fig. 3), or on the T-cell effector functions, indicated by production of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α during an 18-h culture (data not shown). However, levels of IL-6, which is predominantly secreted by innate cells including peripheral blood monocytes in both HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals [22-24], were upregulated by a median 1.4-fold (range 0.6- to 3.4-fold, p = 0.013) (Fig. 4D). Using intracellular cytokine staining, we confirmed that CD14+ monocytes were the predominant source of IL-6 in gag-stimulated PBMCs in ART-naïve individuals; this population accounted for more than 85% of IL-6+ cells in the majority of subjects tested (Fig. 4E). In addition to augmenting IL-6 production, depletion of HIV-1 gag-specific IL-10+ CD8+ T cells led to a modest yet significant upregulation of CD38 in CD14+ monocytes (p = 0.001), and the magnitude of the change in CD38 expression was directly correlated with the magnitude of IL-10+ CD8+ T-cell population that was depleted (r = 0.91, p = 0.0005, Fig. 4C). In contrast to CD8+ T cells, increased CD38 expression in monocytes was not accompanied by a significant change in cell surface HLA-DR expression (data not shown).

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