9%) and that corticosteroid use was associated with a 3-fold incr

9%) and that corticosteroid use was associated with a 3-fold increased risk for ON. Significant risk factors for ON at all skeletal sites combined did not differ substantially from those for ON of the hip. While we did not assess trauma specifically, bone fracture in the prior 5 years was associated with a 5.8-fold increased risk of ON at all skeletal sites both combined and at the hip. As observed in other studies, a history of connective tissue disease or cancer were significant risk factors for ON. This may Enzalutamide cell line be confounded by the frequent use of corticosteroids in these populations [4–6, 20]. In addition, overall disease severity/morbidity may also contribute to a higher rate of ON

in these populations [1, 4]. There were two risk factors that showed a risk reduction (70% with statin use and 60% this website with diabetes mellitus); however, neither was statistically significant and

neither met the criteria for inclusion in the multivariable model. Our study population was 53% female. This contrasts with previous findings that ON is more common in men in the general population (with the exception of systemic lupus erythematosus populations) [1]. In addition, the age of our study population ranged between 42 and 73 years (mean = 57.6 years; median = 59.0 years), which is older than previously reported in the literature [1, 21]. Although a history of osteoporosis in the prior 5 years was a significant risk factor in this study, bisphosphonate use was not. Only three cases had the jaw mentioned as the site of ON, and none of these had been exposed to bisphosphonates in the previous 2 years. In this study, there were no cases of ON with intravenous bisphosphonate use, which has been reported

with ONJ in the treatment of multiple myeloma and metastatic carcinoma in the literature [16–19]. It should also be noted that the study period was prior to the recent literature and Tacrolimus (FK506) recent awareness of ONJ. Given that prior bone fracture was the strongest risk factor observed in this study and that bisphosphonates are indicated for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis that is often first identified after a fracture occurs, confounding by indication may explain the observation of bisphosphonate use and ON in the univariate analysis (elevated crude OR). There are several limitations to this study. As with the use of any medical records database, misclassification bias is possible. The case definition was developed to include all available READ codes in order to minimize the likelihood that true cases of ON were missed (i.e., sensitive) and that cases were not falsely classified (i.e., specific). Some cases of ON may not have been recorded or diagnosed; the diagnosis of non-traumatic ON is difficult because the disease is silent until pain presents [1]. In general, cases of ONJ identified by https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk3326595-epz015938.html dental professionals may not be consistently recorded in the medical records databases.

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