Among these

genes, IL1RALP2 belongs to a novel class of I

Among these

genes, IL1RALP2 belongs to a novel class of IL-1/Toll-like receptor family characterized by the presence of a 150 amino acids carboxy terminus that has no significant homology check details with any protein of known function [55]. Signalling experiments indicate that neither ILRAPL2 nor its homologue ILRAPL1 can mediate transcriptional activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in response to IL-1α, IL-1β or IL-18 [56] and the protein biological features remain to be defined, but a functional study suggests that the ILRAPL1 intracellular domain is crucial to neutrophil function during the inflammatory response [57]. Finally, we were intrigued by the observation that several genes associated with hypomethylated sites have been linked BGB324 chemical structure with neurological

disorders and mental retardation. While we can only speculate on the putative mechanisms justifying this association, we are traced back to earlier reports of the co-existence of phenylketonuria-associated mental retardation and scleroderma [58]. Further, there are data suggesting that patients with SSc may have disturbances of the nervous system as represented by an impaired response to stress [59], the detection of central nervous system ischaemic vasculopathy at magnetic resonance imaging [60,61] and the changes in cerebrovascular reactivity [62]. To determine the mechanistic implications of our findings we utilized IPA in an unsupervised manner to allow the identification of Acyl CoA dehydrogenase gene–gene relationship without a priori assumptions. This analysis linked seven of our 26 genes in a highly significant network around IL-6. This is not surprising, as IL-6 seems to be involved in SSc endothelial dysfunction and fibrogenesis

[63]. Increased IL-6 levels have been found in serum [64] and lesional skin specimens from patients with SSc [65]. Further, an increased B cell-mediated IL-6 production has been reported from SSc lung fibroblasts in vitro with a parallel increased collagen production, and the pharmacological B cell depletion in SSc leads to a decrease in skin score paralleled by decreased IL-6 serum levels [66]. Finally, SSc serum is able to induce IL-6-mediated endothelial activation and apoptosis [67]. Nevertheless, we should also note that the genes identified in the present work do not include interleukins or their receptors, possibly based on a more indirect effect of other genes [68]. In conclusion, we report herein X chromosome genes that may contribute to SSc susceptibility through differential gene methylation, and thus expression, independent of genomic SNPs or variants. This is particularly relevant provided that data were gathered from MZ twins which recognize an identical genomic sequence.

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