: Antitumor effects of photodynamic therapy are potentiated by 2-

: Antitumor effects of photodynamic therapy are potentiated by 2-methoxyestradiol. A superoxide dismutase inhibitor. J Biol Chem 2003, 278:407–414.PubMedCrossRef 51. Olson BJ, Markwell J: Assays for determination of protein concentration. In Current Protocols in

Protein Science. New York: John Wiley; 2007. 52. Beauchamp C, Fridovich I: Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay aplicable to acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 1971, 276–287. Authors’ contributions JN: conceived the study, carried out the experimental work, analyzed the results and drafted the manuscript. EM: carried out experiments. MR: performed real-time PCR experiments. MG: provided technical support and helped to draft the manuscript. AGW: performed statistical analysis. KPB: helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background RG7112 molecular weight www.selleckchem.com/products/byl719.html bacterial infections are a major public health

problem [1–3]. Community acquired PD-0332991 cell line infections with multidrug resistant bacteria and especially hospital acquired infections, have a high mortality rate in the first days of hospitalization [4–6]. The mortality rate is increased by the use of inappropriate antibiotic therapy owing to the rather long duration for obtaining an antibiogram (between 24 and 48 hours). Recent studies have proven the possibility of obtaining a quick (4-5 hours) and complete antibiogram by means of microcalorimetry [7–10]. The studies published so far are basically qualitative in nature, relying mainly on the presence or absence of microcalorimetric signal in media containing antibiotic. Other microcalorimetric studies have also described signal variation depending on bacterial concentration [11]. As emphasized in a recent review, microcalorimetry has the advantages of sensitivity and accuracy “”for dynamic measurements of bacterial numbers

that cannot be achieved with microscopic enumeration, plate counts or protein assays”" [12]. The present contribution contains results obtained via differential scanning microcalorimetry (microDSC), a method related to isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), utilized in recent studies in the form of high Edoxaban throughput, multi-channel (multi-sample) experimental setups [7–13]. Although microDSC is able to investigate only one sample on a single run, its versatility, expressed as heating-cooling and fluid mixing capabilities (within sensitivity performances similar to IMC), recommends this technique for research purposes. We have studied freshly prepared bacterial inocula as well as samples kept for 1 to 4 days at low temperature (1 to 2°C). In addition, our research aimed to study the variation of the calorimetric signal patterns with respect to working temperature and bacterial concentration. Previous isothermal microcalorimetric studies indicate a time lag of approximately 1 hour between sample preparation and actual signal recording [9, 12]. Within this time, reference and sample cell equilibration takes place.

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