Conclusions In a large population of European travelers IBS had

Conclusions. In a large population of European travelers IBS had a lower incidence rate as compared to previous studies. Particular risk groups were identified; those may need to be protected. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized

by relapsing and fluctuating gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, discomfort, and changed bowel habits.1 The Trametinib ic50 diagnosis is based on the exclusion of other functional or organic disorders and the Rome I, II, and at last III criteria.2 The pathogenesis of IBS is multifaceted and not fully understood. In patients with IBS, low-grade inflammatory processes increased epithelial barrier permeability, alterations in the intestinal flora which may activate the immune system, and evidence for neuroimmune interactions were found.3,4 Known risk factors for IBS include genetic,5 epigenetic,6 environmental, and behavioral factors, including infectious diarrhea,7 central nervous system, and psychological characteristics.8,9 A worldwide prevalence of 10% to 15%10,11 and an annual incidence of 0.2% to 7%12,13 have been reported. Various studies indicated that an episode of acute gastroenteritis, such as travelers’ diarrhea (TD), was an important risk factor for developing postinfectious IBS (pIBS).14 In two meta-analyses 1815 and 8 studies,16

respectively, were included. The Ivacaftor solubility dmso pIBS incidence rates ranged from 4% to 32%; the pooled ORs for developing pIBS 6 months post-diarrhea were 5.2 (95% CI 3.2–8.3)15 and 7.3 (95% CI 4.7–11.1),16 respectively. TD is a very common infection usually self-limited among those visiting resource-limited destinations.17 Considering 80 million persons travel to high risk destinations and a mean 2-week incidence rate of Cytidine deaminase TD of 25%,17 some 20 million people would be affected per year. Previous studies of travelers reported IBS incidence rates between 4 and 14%,18–20 but those were limited by a sample size of less than 500, a low response rate, and/or by limited control for confounding factors. They were unable to generate data

on age groups and travel destinations. Therefore, we aimed to establish incidence rates of IBS among a larger cohort of mainly European residents traveling to various resource-limited countries and to identify risk groups among those generally healthy travelers. The Ethical Commission of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, approved the study. We designed a prospective questionnaire-based cohort study with a follow-up at 6 months post-travel. To achieve a precision of +/− 2% with a 4% pIBS incidence rate and a confidence of 1 −α = 95%, a sample size of n = 369 was needed. On the basis of an estimated TD incidence rate of 20% to 40% and, at the same time, assuming withdrawal rates of 30% to 50% an oversampling by a factor of 4 to 10 (at maximum) had to be applied. That resulted in at least 1,600 study subjects to be included.

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