Consequently, several clinical trials have tested the efficacy of

Consequently, several clinical trials have tested the efficacy of antiangiogenic molecules for blocking the interaction between tumor cells and host factors for angiogenesis, but no significant improvement has been achieved Selleckchem PF2341066 regarding the prognosis of ovarian cancer [2] and [13]. Kringle domains are found in many proteins with a diverse array of functions including growth factors and proteases of the blood

coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways [14]. Several kringle domains in these proteins have been identified as inhibitors of angiogenesis, even though their parental proteins are not involved in angiogenesis. One of these molecules, angiostatin, includes the first three (or four) kringle domains of human plasminogen and has shown inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo in preclinical settings [15]; however, in clinical trials, angiostatin did not show significant anticancer effects or improve clinical outcomes [16]. Human apolipoprotein(a)

(apo(a)) also consists of tandemly repeated kringle domains homologous to plasminogen kringle IV (KIV), a single copy plasminogen kringle V homolog (KV), and an inactive protease domain. Previously, we demonstrated that the KIV9, KIV10, and KV domains of human apo(a), called LK68, inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth [17]. In addition, recombinant this website human apo(a) KV (referred to as rhLK8) also showed antiangiogenic activity that was almost equivalent to that of LK68 [18]. Recently, we showed the therapeutic efficacy of targeting tumor-associated vasculature with rhLK8 in experimental primary and metastatic (bone) prostate carcinoma animal models [19], and on the basis of the results of the preclinical study, rhLK8 has been successfully translated

Ketotifen into the phase I clinical trials. Studies determining the indication of the treatment are being expanded. In this study, we examined the biologic effect of human apo(a) KV (rhLK8) on human ovarian cancer cells growing in the peritoneal cavity of female nude mice. Furthermore, we examined the antiangiogenic mechanism of action of rhLK8 and showed that combination treatment with human apo(a) KV and paclitaxel significantly inhibited tumor growth by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Two human ovarian cancer cell lines were selected for this study: SKOV3ip1, which expresses high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is associated with increased ascites formation, and HeyA8, which is characterized by low VEGF expression and no ascites formation. Those cell lines are kind gifts of Dr Isaiah J. Fidler (The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX) [20].

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