Design and methods: The patients’ initial risk factors were assessed at presentation. Venous occlusion, and reflux and reflux parameters were evaluated at 6 months using venous duplex scanning. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was also used to measure calf muscle deoxygenated haemoglobin levels at 6 months. Clinical manifestations were
categorised using the clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP) classification for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), and the patients were divided into those having no PTS (C0-3S,E-s,A(s,d), P-r,P-o) and those having PTS (C4-6S,E-s,A(s,d,p),P-r,P-o).
Results: Of the 121 patients evaluated, 25 (21%) developed PTS with a mean follow-up period of 66 months. PD0332991 nmr At initial presentation, ilio-femoral DVT (odds ratio
(OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) Natural Product Library manufacturer 1.4-8.6) was associated with development of PTS. At 6 months, venous occlusion combined with reflux (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.9-20.7), peak reflux velocity >29.7 cm s(-1) (OR 13.7, 95% CI 4.1-45.7) and mean reflux velocity >8.6 cm s(-1) (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.5-12.9) in the popliteal vein detected by duplex scanning were strong predictors of PTS. NIRS-derived retention index >3.5 was the strongest predictor of PTS at 6 months (OR 67.4, 95% CI 14.3-318.1).
Conclusions: Ilio-femoral DVT is associated with the development of PTS at initial presentation. By contrast, occlusion and reflux, high reflux velocity in the popliteal vein and increased NIRS-derived retention index are important time-course predictors of PTS progression. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: To explore the epigenetic changes and the function of TFPI-2 in esophageal cancer. Materials & methods: Nine esophageal cancer cell lines, nine normal esophageal mucosa, 60 esophageal dysplasia and
106 advanced esophageal cancer samples were included in this study. TFPI-2 methylation was examined by methylation-specific PCR. TFPI-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples. AZD0530 Angiogenesis inhibitor The effect of TFPI-2 on proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration was analyzed by colony formation assay, western blot assay, transwell assay and flow cytometric analysis. Results: TFPI-2 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in human esophageal cancer cell lines, and TFPI-2 expression is inversely correlated with methylation in primary cancer. Methylation was found in 28.2, 33.3 and 33.3% of grade 1, 2 and 3 esophageal dysplasia, and 67% of primary esophageal cancer, but no methylation was found in normal mucosa. Methylation is significantly related to tumor differentiation. Inhibition of invasion, migration, colony formation and proliferation, and induction of apoptosis occurred with the restoration of TFPI-2 expression in the KYSE70 cell line.