DM was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1 45 (1 22-

DM was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.45 (1.22-1.73, p < 0.0001) if ischemic HF, and 1.50 (1.22-1.84, p < 0.0001) if non-ischemic HF (p for interaction = 0.4), compared to non-DM non-ischemic HF patients. Conclusion. The long-term prognosis of DM is equally adverse in ischemic and non-ischemic HF patients.”
“Background: In the problem-based learning (PBL) medical curriculum

at the Arabian Gulf University in Bahrain, students construct concept maps related to each case they study in PBL tutorials.\n\nAim: To evaluate the interrater reliability and predictive validity of concept map scores using a structured assessment tool.\n\nMethods: We examined concept maps of the Z-IETD-FMK manufacturer same cohort of students at the beginning (year 2) and end (year 4) of the pre-clerkship phase, where PBL is the main method of instruction. Concept maps were independently selleck compound evaluated by five raters based on valid selection of concepts, hierarchical arrangement of concepts, integration, relationship to the context of the problem, and degree of student creativity. A 5-point Likert scale was used to evaluate each criterion. Interrater reliability of the instrument was determined using

the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and predictive validity was measured by testing the correlations of concept map scores with summative examination scores.\n\nResults: The ICC of the concept map scores in year 2 was 0.75 (95% CI,

0.67-0.81) and in year 4 was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.59-0.77). Overall concept maps scores of year 4 students were significantly higher compared with year 2 students (p < 0.001, effect size 0.5). The relationship between the students’ scores in concept maps and their scores in summative examination varied from no to mild correlation.\n\nConclusion: The interrater reliability LY2090314 supplier of concept map scores in this study is good to excellent. However, further studies are required to test the generalizability and validity of assessment using this tool.”
“Many species of salmon around the world migrate to open ocean environments for multiple years and then return to their natal rivers to spawn. How exactly salmon are able to execute these long distance migrations, and the impact of environmental conditions on migration behavior, is not well understood. Individual based modeling is one tool that has been used to explore salmon migration in the ocean. Although models are usually not able to confirm whether a particular behavior is used, they can rule out some behaviors as unrealistic. An extensive review of published literature suggests that there is no universal migration behavior. Behaviors that fish use to navigate depend on where they are in the ocean relative to where they are going, as well as the ocean flows and conditions along the way.

Comments are closed.