Fresh ginseng, cultured using hydroponics, was obtained from Cheo

Fresh ginseng, cultured using hydroponics, was obtained from Cheongwon-Gun in Chungbuk, South Korea. Ginseng roots and leaves were rinsed with tap water, dried at room temperature, and stored at −20°C. Standard ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2(S), Rg3(S), Rh1, and Rh2 were purchased from Wako

Pure Chemical (Osaka, Japan). Standard ginsenosides F2, F4, Rg2(R), Rg3(R), Rg5, Rh4, Rk1, and Rk3 were purchased from Ambo Institute (Seoul, South Korea); all chemicals were of reagent grade. Fresh HGR and HGL were subjected to temperature-controlled environments for heat treatment at different temperatures (90°C, 110°C, 130°C, and 150°C) for 2 hours. Heated HGR and HGL were put into flasks. After adding an 80% (v/v) ethanol–water solution, the flasks were sonicated at room temperature for 1 hour in an ultrasonic water bath (frequency 40 Hz, power 300 W; SD-350H; check details Seong Dong, Seoul, Korea). Three replicate extracts were combined, and the solvent was evaporated using a rotary evaporator (N-1000; Eyela, Tokyo,

Japan) under a vacuum at 40°C. The residue was dissolved in 50 mL of distilled water and washed twice with 100 mL of diethyl ether. The aqueous layer was extracted three times with 100 mL Docetaxel of water saturated with n-butanol. The n-butanol layer was washed twice with 100 mL of distilled water to remove impurities and was then evaporated using a rotary evaporator under a vacuum at 50°C. The residue was dissolved in 2 mL of methanol and filtered through a 0.45-μm syringe filter (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). Ginsenoside compositions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Nutlin-3 The high-performance liquid chromatograph was a Younglin ACME 9000 (Younglin, Anyang, South Korea) equipped with a UV detector. The analytical column used was a mightysil RP-18 GP column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm; Kanto Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) and the detection wavelength was 203 nm. The mobile phase consisted of solvent A (acetonitrile) and solvent B (water) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/minute. The gradient elution procedure was as follows: 0 minute, 18% A; 0–42 minutes, 24% A; 42–46 minutes, 29% A; 46–75 minutes, 40% A; 75–100 minutes, 65% A; 100–135 minutes, 85% A; and 135–150 minutes, 85% A. The injection volume was 20 μL. Phenolic content of the 80% ethanol extract of the heated ginseng was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method [13]. In a 10-mL test tube, 2 mL of 2% Na2CO3, 0.1 mL of extract appropriately diluted, and 0.1 mL of 50% Folin–Ciocalteu phenol reagent (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) were added and mixed. After exactly 30 minutes, the 750-nm absorbance was read, and the phenolic content was calculated from a calibration curve (R2 = 0.9996), which was obtained using gallic acid as a standard (20–200 μg/mL). All extracts were analyzed in triplicate.

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