Interestingly, taurine

Interestingly, taurine selleck chemicals depletion has been found to decrease muscle force output [46], corroborating the link between amino acid level and proper tissue function both in vivo and ex vivo. Accordingly, taurine levels fluctuate in mdx muscles in relation to the disease phase, with compensatory increases being suggested after acute degenerative phases and glucocorticoid treatment [28–30]. Future studies will further evaluate the role of taurine as a pathology modifier as well as a biomarker. However, the significant increase in amino acid content presently

observed on combined treatment shows that taurine can be effectively up-taken by fast-twitch muscle, in line with previous observations [45], and that this mechanism may account for the amelioration of excitation-contraction coupling. However, the possible muscle-type and organ-specific actions also have to be taken into account in the overall action of taurine. The drug combination did not lead to any advantage in terms of plasma levels of CK vs. the two drugs alone, while the beneficial effect of taurine on LDH was

attenuated. The lack of effect of PDN on muscular enzyme activity in dystrophic subjects has been described, but no data are available about taurine. However, taurine supplementation has been found to reduce plasma levels of LDH and CK in an isoprenaline-induced cardiomyopathy click here model [47]. Thus, our result suggests that taurine controls metabolic distress in exercised dystrophic animals, being less effective on

a marker of sarcolemmal weakness such as CK. The correlation between muscle damage and level of muscular enzymes in the blood stream is puzzling. In fact, many drugs acting as anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant, or strategies able to enhance others dystrophin, may exert a membrane protective effect leading to a significant reduction of CK, in parallel with histological evidence of decreased dystro-pathology signs [15,33,35]. However, in the absence of a specific membrane effect of the drug, an increased muscular activity due to an improved muscle function may also maintain elevated levels of CK. Thus, the evaluation of the histology profile was of importance to better verify the outcome of the present treatments. Interestingly, the combined drug treatment did not show any clear advantage on histology profile, with effects rather similar, if not smaller, than those observed by PDN alone. Thus, the results suggest that the amelioration of in vivo and ex vivo functional parameters are indeed related to the increased levels of the aminoacid and its action on calcium homeostasis, while the protection against dystrophic degeneration is mainly due to the action of PDN.

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