“Ishak N, Hanita T, Sozo F, Maritz G, Harding R, De Matteo R. Sex differences in cardiorespiratory https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly3023414.html transition and surfactant composition following preterm birth in sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 303: R778-R789, 2012. First published August 22, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00264.2012.-Male preterm infants are at greater risk of respiratory morbidity and mortality than females but mechanisms are poorly understood. Our objective was to identify the basis for the “male disadvantage” following preterm birth using an ovine model of preterm birth in which survival of females is greater than males. At 0.85 of term, fetal sheep underwent
surgery (11 female, 10 male) for the implantation of vascular catheters to monitor blood gases and arterial pressure. After cesarean delivery at DNA-PK inhibitor 0.90 of term, lambs were monitored for 4 h while spontaneously breathing; lambs were then euthanized and static lung compliance measured. We analyzed surfactant phospholipid composition in amniotic fluid and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) taken at necropsy; we also analyzed surfactant protein (SP) expression in lung tissue. Before delivery male fetuses tended
to have lower pH (P = 0.052) compared with females. One hour after delivery, males had significantly lower pH and higher arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa-CO2), lactate, glucose, and mean arterial pressure than females. Two males died 1 h after birth. Static lung compliance was 37% lower in males than females (P < 0.05). In BALF, males had significantly more protein, a lower percentage of the phosphatidylcholine Compound C order (PC) 32:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) and higher percentages of PC34:2 and PC36:2. There were no sex-related differences in lung architecture or expression of SP-A, -B, -C, and -D. The lower lung compliance in male preterm lambs compared with females may be due to altered surfactant phospholipid composition
and function. These changes may compromise gas exchange and impair respiratory adaptation after male preterm birth.”
“We examined the contributions of the human pulvinar to goal directed selection of visual targets in 3 patients with chronic, unilateral lesions involving topographic maps in the ventral pulvinar. Observers completed 2 psychophysical tasks in which they discriminated the orientation of a lateralized target grating in the presence of vertically-aligned distracters. In experiment 1, where distracter contrast was varied while target contrast remained constant, the patients’ contralesional contrast thresholds for discriminating the orientation of grating stimuli were elevated only when the task required selection of a visual target in the face of competition from a salient distracter. Attentional selectivity was restored in the patients in experiment 2 where target contrast was varied while distracter contrast remained constant.