Multiple other serious neurological and ocular disorders also res

Multiple other serious neurological and ocular disorders also result find more from VZV reactivation. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the clinical and pathological complications of neurological and ocular disease

produced by VZV reactivation, molecular aspects of VZV latency, VZV virology and VZV-specific immunity, the role of apoptosis in VZV-induced cell death and the development of an animal model provided by simian varicella virus infection of monkeys. “
“Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) is a rare type of primary brain tumor. Although PGNT has traditionally been defined as a clinically indolent neoplasm, several cases with high proliferative activity and tumor recurrence have recently been reported. We report a case of PGNT in a 12-year-old boy who presented with epilepsy and harbored a 64 mm cystic tumor with a high proliferative component in the right temporal lobe. 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) showed high uptake in the solid mass. Gross total resection of

the tumor mass was achieved and the patient became seizure-free without any neurological deficits. Histologically, the tumor contained two distinct areas of a vasocentric papilliform structure and a desmoplastic component. Minigemistocytic cells and small necrotic regions were observed adjacent to the pseudopapillae. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed both glial and neuronal differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation Adriamycin supplier index was high (14%) in the area corresponding to the high uptake region in the 11C-methionine PET. No tumor recurrence was observed 20 months after surgery. High proliferative PGNTs Inositol monophosphatase 1 are rare and to our knowledge this is only the third pediatric case of PGNT with atypical features reported in the literature. Hence, we here review the reported cases of PGNT and discuss the clinical, radiological and histological features of this malignancy. “
“EphB2 is a member of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) family that is essential for the cell adhesion, neural crest migration, axon guidance and synaptogenesis in the nervous system. Recent studies show that preservation of EphB2 in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

rescues the cognitive deficit, suggesting a crucial role of EphB2 in AD. However, the expression and distribution profiles of EphB2 in the early stage of AD have not been reported. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and immunofluorescence were used to analyse the level of EphB2 in Tg2576 mice at different ages and in cultured neurones with Aβ treatment at different times. EphB2 was reduced in an age-dependent manner in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice. The decrease of EphB2 appeared earlier in the olfactory bulb than the hippocampus, and reduction of EphB2 appeared earlier than that of MAP2, a dendritic cytoskeleton marker. In the cortex, EphB2 displayed a significant translocation from the neuronal processes to the cell bodies with ageing.

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