“Objective: To explore the potential utility of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence as a biomarker for injection risk, and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) as a bionnarker for sexual risk among injecting drug users (IDUs). We examined the relationships between HCV and HIV and between HSV-2 and HIV among injecting drug users in New York City relative to the large-scale implementation of syringe exchange in the mid-1990s.
Methods: 397 injecting drug users were recruited from a drug detoxification program in New York from 2005 to 2007. Informed consent was obtained, a questionnaire covering demographics, drug use and
HIV risk was administered. Blood samples were tested for antibody to HIV, HCV and HSV-2.
Results: Among all subjects, HIV prevalence was 17%, HCV prevalence 72% and HSV-2 prevalence Selleckchem BI-2536 48%. Among IDUs who began injecting before 1995, HIV was 28%, HCV serostatus was strongly associated with HIV serostatus (AOR = 8.96, 95% CI 1.16-69.04) and HSV-2 serostatus was not associated with HIV serostatus (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.64-2.67). Among Subjects
who began injecting in 1995 or later, HIV was 6%. HCV was not associated with HIV (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.27-4.08) and HSV-2 serostatus was strongly related to HIV serostatus (AOR = 10.71, 95% CI 1.18-97.57).
Conclusions: HCV and HSV-2 HCV and HSV-2 may provide important new tools for monitoring evolving HIV epidemics among IDUs. Reconsideration VX-689 Cell Cycle inhibitor of the current CDC hierarchical transmission risk classification system may also be warranted. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Reuse of treated wastewater to irrigate agricultural crops is increasing in many arid and semi-arid areas around the world. The presence of numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in treated wastewater and their potential transfer into food produce such as vegetables poses an unknown human health risk. The goal of this study was to identify PPCPs that have a comparatively high potential for plant uptake and
Compound C translocation. A total of 20 frequently-occurring PPCPs were compared for their accumulation into four staple vegetables (lettuce, spinach, cucumber, and pepper) grown in nutrient solutions containing PPCPs at 0.5 or 5 mu g L-1. Triclocarban, fluoxetine, triclosan, and diazepam were found at high levels in roots, while meprobamate, primidone, carbamazepine, dilantin, and diuron exhibited more active translocation from roots to leaves. Root uptake of neutral PPCPs was positively correlated with the pH adjusted log K-ow(i.e., log D-ow), and was likely driven by chemical adsorption onto the root surfaces. In contrast, translocation from roots to leaves was negatively related to log D., suggesting hydrophilicity-regulated transport via xylems.