PCR showed that leptin mRNA was exclusively expressed in the liver, and not adipose or other tissues. The leptin coding sequence of striped bass and the more widely cultured hybrid striped bass variety (HSB; Morone chrysops, white bass x M. saxatilis) were identical. We then evaluated whether the metabolic status of HSB might alter leptin gene expression. juvenile HSB were subjected to 3 weeks feed deprivation followed by 3 weeks of refeeding. Quantitative PCR showed that fasting for 3 weeks reduced hepatic leptin mRNA levels relative
to fed controls. Leptin mRNA levels then increased upon refeeding, albeit levels were not completely restored to those seen in control fish fed throughout the experiment. Intraperitoneal injection of human leptin suppressed appetite in HSB. In as much as hepatic HSB leptin mRNA is regulated by nutritional state and has a corresponding anorexigenic effect, our results suggest that leptin may LDN-193189 supplier play a role in energy homeostasis in these advanced Perciformes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“SPECT can provide valuable diagnostic SB203580 and treatment response information in large-scale multicenter clinical trials. However,
SPECT has been limited in providing consistent quantitative functional parametric values across the centers, largely because of a lack of standardized procedures to correct for attenuation and scatter. Recently, a novel software package has been developed to reconstruct quantitative SPECT images and assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and after acetazolamide challenge from a single SPECT session. This study was aimed at validating this technique at different institutions with a variety of SPECT devices and imaging protocols. Methods: Twelve participating institutions obtained a series of SPECT scans on physical phantoms and clinical patients. The phantom experiments included the assessment of septal penetration for each collimator used and of the
accuracy of the reconstructed images. Clinical studies were divided into 3 protocols, including intrainstitutional selleck chemical reproducibility, a comparison with PET, and rest-rest study consistency. The results from 46 successful studies were analyzed. Results: Activity concentration estimation (Bq/mL) in the reconstructed SPECT images of a uniform cylindric phantom showed an interinstitution variation of +/- 5.1%, with a systematic underestimation of concentration by 12.5%. CBF values were reproducible both at rest and after acetazolamide on the basis of repeated studies in the same patient (mean +/- SD difference, -0.4 +/- 5.2 mL/min/100 g, n = 44). CBF values were also consistent with those determined using PET (-6.1 +/- 5.1 mL/min/100 g, n = 6). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that SPECT can quantitatively provide physiologic functional images of rest and acetazolamide challenge CBF, using a quantitative reconstruction software package.