pylori-infected human stomach and different compositions of the stomach microbiota. Environmental conditions, therapeutic interventions, and further coinfections can have an impact on stomach pH and physiology, and subsequently on microbiota colonization, and may thereby enhance cancer-promoting conditions. One important and changing factor for pathogenesis was shown to be diet . This and other variable Nutlin-3a mouse environmental conditions in the stomach, including the inflammation induced by H. pylori, might also promote the overgrowth of resident bacterial species such as Kingella
 that can then contribute to enhance the cancer-promoting capacity of H. pylori. We sincerely apologize to all authors in the field who have published on H. pylori pathogenesis during the past year and to authors of previously published relevant original papers, whom we could not cite in this review due to page limitations. CJ was supported by grants SFB900 B6 from CP-868596 the German Research Foundation and the Heldivpat network of the German Ministry for Education and Research. MdB was supported
by Fondazione Cariplo, grant N 2011-0485 and AIRC-Cariparo regional Grant. Competing interests: The authors have no competing interests. “
“This article summarizes the published literature concerning the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori infection published from April 2009 through March 2010. Prevalence of infection varied between 7 and 87% and was lower in European studies. All retrieved studies examining transmission of infection concluded that
spread is from person-to-person. One study collecting stool and vomitus samples from patients check details with acute gastroenteritis detected H. pylori DNA in 88% of vomitus and 74% of stool samples. Proposed risk factors for infection included male gender, increasing age, shorter height, tobacco use, lower socioeconomic status, obesity, and lower educational status of the parents in studies conducted among children. Decision analysis models suggest preventing acquisition of H. pylori, via vaccination in childhood, could be cost-effective and may reduce incidence of gastric cancer by over 40%. As yet, no country has adopted public health measures to treat infected individuals or prevent infection in populations at risk. This article summarizes the published literature between April 2009 and March 2010 concerning the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori, as well as the public health implications arising from infection with the bacterium. The authors searched MEDLINE and EMBASE between the aforementioned dates to identify potentially relevant studies using the term H. pylori (both as a medical subject heading and free text term).