Results: We identified 239 male patients with anterior urethral v

Results: We identified 239 male patients with anterior urethral valves, of whom 139 had adequate data available Tubastatin A mw for study inclusion. Of these patients 108 (78%) had normal renal function after treatment. On bivariate analysis vesicoureteral reflux (OR 22.4, p < 0.0001), pretreatment azotemia (OR 17.1, p < 0.0001), urinary tract infection (OR 3.3, p = 0.006), hydronephrosis (OR 10.0, p = 0.0004) and bladder trabeculation (OR 7.3, p = 0.01) were associated with renal failure or death while treatment method (p = 0.9), obstruction type (valve vs diverticulum, p = 0.4) and valve location (p = 0.6) were not. After adjusting

for other factors only pretreatment azotemia (p = 0.0005) and vesicoureteral reflux (p = 0.01) remained associated with renal failure buy eFT-508 and/or death with a trend toward significance for urinary tract infection (p = 0.06). When all 3 factors were present, the odds of a poor renal outcome increased 25-fold (p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Congenital anterior urethral obstruction in children has a generally good prognosis but may occasionally result in a poor renal outcome. The combination of pretreatment azotemia, vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infection is highly predictive of a poor renal outcome.”
“N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a major role in various forms of developmental and adult synaptic plasticity (Lopez de Armentia M, Sah P (2003) J Neurosci 23:6876-6883).

Activity-dependent shifts in NR2 subunits of the NMDARs have been proposed to be the molecular basis of critical period plasticity. Several supporting examples have been reported; however it is not clear whether the relationship between NMDAR subunit changes and neural plasticity are correlative or causal, nor whether such a relationship is universal across all sensory pathways with developmental plasticity. In the present study, we used voltage-clamp recording techniques to

investigate whether subunit composition of NMDARs changes during FAD development and after neonatal denervation in the principal sensory nucleus (Pry) of the trigeminal nerve. Relative AMPA receptor contribution to synaptic transmission increased linearly by the second postnatal week in the normal PrV. Denervation by peripheral nerve damage did not alter this process. We took the weighted decay time constant (T(w)) of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs as an index for NMDAR subunit composition. The T(w) measurement and Western blot analysis revealed that NMDARs contained both NR2A and NR2B subunits. The NR2A/NR2B ratio did not change during postnatal development or after neonatal denervation. Thus, critical period plasticity-related pattern formation in the PrV does not depend on changes in subunit composition of NMDARs. The mechanism underlying developmental synaptic plasticity in the PrV differs from those in higher trigeminal centers and other brain structures.

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