The stem cell-like properties of spheres derived from canine mammary tumors remain largely elusive. We attempted to induce sphere formation using four cell lines of canine mammary adenocarcinoma, and characterized the spheres derived from a CHMp line in vitro and in vivo. The CHMp-derived spheres showed predominantly CD44(+)CD24(-) population, higher expression of stem cell-related genes, such as Target Selective Inhibitor Library ic50 CD133, Notch3 and MDR, and higher resistance to doxorubicin compared with the CHMp-derived adherent cells. Xenograft transplantations in nude mice demonstrated that only 1 x 10(4) sphere cells were sufficient for tumor formation.
Use of the sphere assay on these sphere-derived tumors showed that sphere-forming cells were present in the tumors, and were maintained in serial transplantation. We propose that spheres derived from canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines possess a potential characteristic of cancer stem cells. Spheres derived from canine mammary tumors could be a powerful tool with which to investigate novel therapeutic drugs and to elucidate the molecular and cellular
mechanisms that underlie tumorigenesis. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Case report.
Objectives. To report a rare case of complicated paraplegia caused by a spontaneous epidural hematoma following an epidural steroid injection in a patient with unrecognized chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and to review relevant literature and discuss etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features.
Summary of Background Data. A spinal selleck chemicals llc epidural hematoma is a rare but potentially catastrophic complication, which could develop in patients without any risk factors. Some patients with chronic ITP are asymptomatic. To our knowledge there has been PF-04929113 mouse no previous report of such a complication.
Methods. This is a retrospective review of a case seen at our institution.
Results. The authors present a case of a 67-year-old woman who received an epidural steroid injection following complaints of lower
back pain and bilateral buttock and leg pain. One day later, the patient had right leg numbness and weakness extending to her right knee; she was taken for emergency surgery. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed an epidural hematoma with high-signal intensity on T2 imaging in the lumbar spinal cord and spinal cord compression with subdural hematoma. One week later, she was progressively developing lower extremity paraplegia with an L1 motor level and no sensory or sphincter activity. She was taken from the emergency room at our institution to the operating room for emergency decompression. After an uneventful course for 1 year, the patient presented with progressive bilateral lower extremity paralysis.