David Y. Zhang and Allen S. Anderson Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome characterized by upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and abnormal responsiveness of the parasympathetic
nervous system. Studies in the 1980s and 1990s demonstrated that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors improved symptoms and mortality in HF resulting from systolic dysfunction, thus providing a framework to consider the use of β-blockers for HF therapy, contrary to the prevailing wisdom of the time. Against this backdrop, this article reviews the contemporary understanding of the sympathetic nervous system and the failing heart. Maria Patarroyo-Aponte and Monica Colvin-Adams Heart failure is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in the United States, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. Prompt diagnosis may help decrease mortality, hospital R428 stay, and costs related to treatment. A complete heart failure evaluation comprises a comprehensive history and physical examination, echocardiogram, and diagnostic tools that provide information regarding the etiology of heart failure, related complications, and prognosis in order to prescribe appropriate therapy, monitor response to therapy, and transition expeditiously
to advanced Androgen Receptor Antagonist therapies when needed. Emerging technologies and biomarkers may provide better risk stratification and more accurate determination of cause and progression. Faiz Subzposh, Ashwani Gupta, Shelley R. Hankins,
and Howard J. Eisen Heart failure remains a major health problem in the United States, affecting 5.8 million Americans. Its prevalence continues to rise due to the improved survival of patients. Despite advances in treatment, morbidity and mortality remain very high, with a median survival of about 5 years after the first clinical symptoms. This article describes the causes, classification, and management goals of heart failure in Stages A and B. Sasikanth Adigopula, Rey P. Vivo, Eugene C. DePasquale, Ali Nsair, and Mario C. Deng ACC Stage C heart failure includes those patients with prior or current symptoms of heart failure in the context of an underlying structural heart problem second who are primarily managed with medical therapy. Although there is guideline-based medical therapy for those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), therapies in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have thus far proven elusive. Emerging therapies such as serelaxin are currently under investigation and may prove beneficial. The role of advanced surgical therapies, such as mechanical circulatory support, in this population is not well defined. Further investigation is warranted for these therapies in patients with Stage C heart failure. Michelle M.