Whilst the current evidence base for increased Ca2+ ion sensitivi

Whilst the current evidence base for increased Ca2+ ion sensitivity in muscle fibres

is restricted to in vitro work, it would be of interest to examine a possible effect in vivo. The contribution of carnosine to intracellular buffering 17DMAG during isometric exercise might be related to the recruitment pattern of muscle fibres, since different concentrations of carnosine are reported in type I and II fibres [33, 34]. Beltman et al. [35] showed that, after seven intermittent 1 s contractions, fibre type activation at 39% MVIC differed between fibres types. Type I and IIa fibres were recruited at 39% MVIC, whereas type IIx fibres were only recruited at 87% MVIC. Progressive shifts in phosphorylcreatine/creatine from low to high percentages of MVIC were greater in type I fibres compared to type IIa fibres, which in turn, were greater than in type IIx fibres, suggesting a progressive activation or rate coding of fibres C188-9 chemical structure [35]. However, this

study did not examine fibre recruitment in contractions sustained to fatigue by which point, most likely, all fibre types would have been recruited. SCH772984 cost Of relevance to the issue of fibre involvement, we have previously shown that β-alanine supplementation increases carnosine to an equal extent in both type I and II muscle fibres in m. vastus lateralis[16, 36]. In conclusion, four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improves endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels. References 1. Hultman E, Sahlin K: Acid–base balance during exercise. Exerc

Sport Sci Rev 1980, 8:41–128.PubMed 2. Sahlin K, Harris RC, Nylind B, Hultman E: Lactate content and pH in muscle obtained after dynamic exercise. Pflugers Archives 1976, 367:143–149.CrossRef 3. Pan JW, Hamm JR, Hetherington HP, Rothman DL, Shulman RG: Correlation of lactate and pH in human Enzalutamide chemical structure skeletal muscle after exercise by 1H NMR. Magn Reson Med Sci 1991, 20:57–65.CrossRef 4. Spriet LL, Lindinger MI, McKelvie RS, Heigenhauser GJF, Jones NL: Muscle glycogenolysis and H+ concentration during maximal intermittent cycling. J Appl Physiol 1989, 66:8–13.PubMed 5. Harris RC, Edwards RHT, Hultman E, Nordesjo LO, Nylind B: The time course of phosphorylcreatine resynthesis during recovery of the quadriceps muscle in man. Pflugers Archives 1976, 367:137–142.CrossRef 6. Sahlin K, Harris RC: The creatine kinase reaction: a simple reaction with functional complexity. Amino Acids 2011, 40:1363–1367.PubMedCrossRef 7. Wallimann T, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Schlattner U: The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine. Amino Acids 2011, 40:1271–1296.PubMedCrossRef 8. Trivedi B, Daniforth WH: Effect of pH on the kinetics of frog muscle phosphofructokinase. J Biol Chem 1966, 241:4110–4112.PubMed 9.

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