9 to 3.1 eV) semiconductor [1, 2], is of great interest Epacadostat solubility dmso for diverse technological applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics . Zero-dimensional In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), with a variety of tunable morphologies ranging from octahedra, hexagons, cubes, to pyramids, are beneficial
as building blocks for indium oxide-based or hybrid transistors . Their remarkably large surface-to-volume ratio and good stability have made them promising materials in gas sensors/biosensors [5, 6], photocatalysis , photoelectrochemical cells , and ultraviolet photodetectors [9, 10]. Despite the advantages of using this material, In2O3 NP-based devices usually encounter selleck chemicals llc several deficiencies, for instance, low conductivity and poor selleck adhesion. This could decrease the efficiency and stability of the devices. One of the reasons for the low conductivity of In2O3 NP-based devices is due to the weak interconnection between each NP [11, 12]. In this case, the carrier transportation between the In2O3 NPs is inefficient where charge carriers might
be lost at the interface due to recombination or charge delocalization. Meanwhile, the In2O3 NP coating is usually not adhesive, thus making it easier to be scratched from the substrate. Hence, in order to solve these problems, it is crucial to improve the microstructure arrangement of the In2O3 NPs. Several methods such as annealing and plasma treatments have been introduced to improve the structural Resveratrol and electrical properties of In2O3 nanostructures [13–15]. A previous report  showed an increase in photoconductivity of undoped In2O3 thin films to about 102 (Ω cm)−1 by using a two-step thermal annealing method at an optimum temperature of ≤500°C. More recent research on femtosecond laser annealing of In2O3 nanowire transistors
revealed significant improvements in device performance owing to the reduction in interfacial traps by using the treatment . On the other hand, oxygen plasma treatment  serves as an alternative treatment method to improve the surface contact of tin-doped In2O3 for light-emitting devices. By combining rapid thermal annealing and nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma treatment, Remashan et al.  demonstrated almost two orders of increment in off current and on/off current ratios of zinc oxide thin film transistors. A significant effort has been devoted to the advancement in synthesis and fabrication of In2O3 NPs using a variety of techniques including laser ablation, electron beam evaporation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), pulsed laser deposition, sol-gel, and thermolysis [17, 18]. Of those, CVD is capable of high yield production and good crystallinity of In2O3 NPs . The In2O3 NPs synthesized by this method typically have a higher purity level compared to those synthesized by wet chemical methods as the deposition is done under a certain vacuum level.