Kuroda M, Ohta T, Uchiyama I, Baba T, Yuzawa H, Kobayashi I, Cui

Kuroda M, Ohta T, Uchiyama I, Baba T, Yuzawa H, Kobayashi I, Cui L, Oguchi A, Aoki K, Nagai Y, et al.: Whole genome sequencing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Lancet 2001, 357 (9264) : 1225–1240.PubMedCrossRef 57. Novick R: Properties of a cryptic high-frequency transducing phage in Staphylococcus aureus . Virology 1967, 33 (1) : 155–166.PubMedCrossRef 58. Horsburgh MJ, Aish JL, White IJ, Shaw L, Lithgow JK, Foster SJ: σ B modulates virulence SAHA HDAC determinant expression and stress resistance: characterization of a functional rsbU strain derived from Staphylococcus aureus 8325–4. JBacteriol 2002, 184 (19) : 5457–5467.CrossRef Authors’ contributions MT carried out the phospholipid

analyses and molecular genetic studies, and participated in manuscript preparation. RLO performed the high-salinity survival analyses, see more and YK performed the antimicrobial peptide susceptibility tests. SLT participated Capmatinib purchase in the molecular genetic studies. YK, RLO, TO, and SS participated in designing the study. HH conceived of the study with KM and helped to coordinate the study. KM carried out molecular genetic studies, participated in the design and coordination of the study, and helped

to draft the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for melioidosis, an infectious disease of humans prevalent in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia [1]. Infections in humans may result in a wide range of clinical symptoms and manifestations [2, 3] and in some individuals the bacterium is able to persist with symptoms not shown until several years after exposure [4]. B. pseudomallei has been shown to have a broad host range with disease reported

in animals BCKDHA ranging from kangaroos to dolphins [5, 6]. However, in the laboratory, the mouse is the most commonly used infection model [7]. Different strains of B. pseudomallei vary markedly in their virulence in murine models of disease. When given by the intraperitoneal (i.p) route, the most virulent isolates have an infectious dose of less than 50 colony forming units (cfu), whereas in the least virulent isolates the infectious dose is over 5,000 cfu [7]. It is not clear whether these differences in virulence in mice are associated with the various clinical outcomes observed in humans. Whilst murine models of infection are valuable for understanding mechanisms of virulence, the behaviour of B. pseudomallei in cell culture systems has been used to characterise the intracellular lifestyle of the bacterium. B. pseudomallei has been shown to be taken up by professional phagocytes including mouse macrophage-like cell lines such as J774 and RAW264 [8, 9] and non-phagocytic cells including HeLa and A549 cells [8]. More recently, other members of the Burkholderia genus including B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis have been described as being closely related to B. pseudomallei [10, 11]. Indeed, until recently, B.

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