meningitidis (Schubert-Unkmeir et al., 2010). Meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae in the neonatal rats is associated with the higher expression of MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9, whereas in rabbits, only MMP-2 and MMP-9 are found to be responsible for the impairment of BBB and blood–CSF barriers (Azeh et al., 1998). Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses MMPs more effectively for the tissue and neural damage. Infected monocytes induce MMP-9 secretion from astrocytes, afforded by IL-1β and TNF-α (Harris et al., 2007). The importance
of MMP-9 in BBB disruption was proved elsewhere by diminishing the process of BBB disruption in MMP-9 knockout mice (Asahi et al., 2001). Borrelia burgdorferi causes the release of MMP-1 and MMP-9 from human cells, while plasmin-coated B. burgdorferi stimulates pro-MMP-9. This triggers a cascade that leads to the degradation of basement AUY-922 membranes (Gebbia et al., 2001). Selleck Midostaurin Borrelia burgdorferi–Anaplasma phagocytophilum coinfection of BMECs leads to increased reductions in transendothelial electrical resistance and elevated production of MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, and MMP-9) (Grab et al., 2007). Together with other factors, such as cytokines and chemokines, this expression leads to the increase in vascular permeability and inflammatory
responses. In fact, coinfection results in the higher many production of MMPs than B. burgdorferi alone (Grab et al., 2007). Acanthamoeba serine proteases
have been demonstrated to disrupt human BMEC monolayers (Alsam et al., 2005). Moreover, to the serine proteases, Acanthamoeba is able to use metalloproteinase activity (Sissons et al., 2006). In general, expression of MMP-9 during the bacterial meningitis is 10- to 1000-fold higher than in the cases of viral meningitis (Kolb et al., 1998). Interactions between protein molecules from host and pathogens are crucial to trigger translocation processes. Indeed, it takes two to tango: both host receptors and pathogen ligands. Underlying molecular basis of BBB translocation by various pathogens has been revealed in the last decade, however, yet an array of protein–protein interactions between many of the neuroinvasive pathogens and BBB remained fully unexplored. Identification and molecular characterization of these pathogens and host factors mediating BBB penetration can open novel perspectives in the development of more specific drugs and vaccine strategies. The research activities and authors of this review are supported by the research grants VEGA-1/0621/09, 1/0608/09, 2/0121/11, and APVV-0036-10. E.B. and P.M. contributed equally to this work. “
“To elucidate a potential role for H. pylori BabA and SabA adhesins in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions, the MBS of BabA and SabA was examined using an in-house ABA-ELISA.