intermedia since a genetic transfer system for having gene-target

intermedia since a genetic transfer system for having gene-targeted mutants of this organism yet remains to be developed [47, 48]. However, recent studies evidently showed a tight relation between stress responses and biofilm formation [46, 49–55], though stress response genes are not prominently up-regulated in some experimental biofilm

formation [56]. We found in our earlier study that exposing biofilm-positive P. intermedia to environmental stress such as animal passages of the organism resulted in the up-regulations of HSPs at a protein level with Selleckchem Cilengitide increased production of cell surface-associated meshwork-like structures. By contrast, animal passages induced neither the production of viscous materials nor the up-regulation of HSPs in strain 17-2 (unpublished data). When we compared the gene expression CH5424802 profiles of strain 17 cells plated on BAPs to those of planktonic cells in enriched-TSB, transcriptional levels of several genes including those for a levanase (ScrL: PINA0149), putative σE (PINA0299) and a polysialic acid transport protein (KpsD: PINA1911) were dramatically up-regulated buy KU55933 on cells from the solid culture media. The highest transcriptional level was observed on a hypothetical protein (PINA1526) with LTXXQ motif which is found in a number of bacterial proteins bearing similarity

to the protein CpxP [57]. PINA0299 (putative σE) is homologous to the gene for AlgU which affects the conversion to 4��8C mucoidy and alginate production in P. aeruginosa [58]. The AlgU (σE)-dependent promoter of RpoH, well known positive regulator of heat shock genes, is known to be activated in mucoid type P. aeruginosa [58]. Although plating of planktonic cells at an exponential phase itself is known to immediately induce the expression of heat shock regulons in E. coli [59], we now hypothesize that, like AlgU (σE) in P. aeruginosa [58], P. intermedia strain 17 cells keep their stress response via one of ECF sigma factors activated;

thus rendering this organism to maintain EPS production at high levels in different growth conditions. However, so far we studied, gene clusters responsible for mannose-rich EPS still remain to be elucidated. To address the question of whether the gene expression phenomena observed in this study represent gene expression events behind the EPS production in P. intermedia biofilm, operon/genes for EPS synthesis regulated by stress-responsive systems of this organism must be explored in future studies. Conclusion The data obtained in this study suggest that the Prevotella biofilms mainly composed of mannose-rich polysaccharides contribute to their resistance to host innate defence responses resulting in the development of chronic infections in vivo, and may also suggest that stress responsive systems of this organism might be behind its biofilm formation. To figure out a biofilm formation-gene expression relay system in P.

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