Patients who reported smoking status and no previous CVD prior to

Patients who reported smoking status and no previous CVD prior to enrolment in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study were included in this study.

Smoking status is collected at each visit as current smoker (yes/no) and ever smoker BTK signaling pathway inhibitor (yes/no). Time since stopping smoking was calculated for persons who had reported current smoking during follow-up and no current smoking subsequently. Endpoints were: myocardial infarction (MI); coronary heart disease (CHD: MI plus invasive coronary artery procedure or death from other CHD); CVD (CHD plus carotid artery endarterectomy or stroke); and all-cause mortality. Event rates were calculated for never, previous and current smokers, and smokers who stopped during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were determined using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, cohort, calendar year, family Bortezomib cell line history of CVD, diabetes, lipids, blood pressure and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 27 136 patients had smoking status reported, with totals of

432, 600, 746 and 1902 MI, CHD, CVD and mortality events, respectively. The adjusted IRR of CVD in patients who stopped smoking during follow-up decreased from 2.32 within the first year of stopping to 1.49 after >3 years compared with those who never smoked. Similar trends were observed for the MI and CHD endpoints. Reductions in risk were less pronounced for all-cause mortality. The risk of CVD events in HIV-positive patients decreased with increasing time since stopping smoking. Smoking cessation efforts should be a priority in the management of HIV-positive patients. Rates of cigarette smoking are high across most HIV-infected populations in developed countries. Studies have reported

at least a two-to-threefold increased rate compared with the general Decitabine research buy population, with 40–70% of HIV-positive patients reporting current smoking [1–6]. Smoking has been independently associated with morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients [7–11]; comorbid conditions include bacterial pneumonia [8,10,12], pulmonary disease [8,13], lung cancer [14,15] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [7,16]. The contribution of smoking to the risk of myocardial infarctions (MIs) has also been shown to be considerably greater than other CVD risk factors. The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study demonstrated a twofold increased risk of MIs among current and previous smokers compared with nonsmokers. For other cardiovascular risk factors, the risk of MIs was increased by 16% per doubling in triglycerides, 20% per unit increase in total cholesterol, and 25% for patients with hypertension and diabetes [17].

Technical support issues arising from supporting information (oth

Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors. “
“The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum BI 2536 influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice

task in which different odor cues indicated what reward was available on the left or on the right. The value of reward associated with a leftward or rightward movement was manipulated by varying the size of and delay to reward in separate blocks of trials. Rats were faster or slower depending

on whether the expected reward value was high or low, respectively. The number of neurons that increased firing during performance of the task outnumbered those that decreased firing. Both increases and decreases were modulated by expected value and response direction. Neurons that fired more or less strongly for larger reward tended to fire, respectively, more or less strongly for immediate reward, reflecting Dabrafenib their common motivational output. Finally, value selectivity was present prior to presentation of cues indicating the nature of the upcoming behavioral response for both increasing- and decreasing-type neurons, reflecting the internal bias or preparatory set of the rat. These results emphasize the importance of increasing-type neurons on behavioral output when animals are making decisions based on predicted reward value. “
“A previous analysis of the quinpirole sensitisation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed that the behavioral phenotype of compulsive checking consists of three constitutive components

– vigor of checking performance, focus on the task of checking, and satiety following a bout of Uroporphyrinogen III synthase checking. As confirmation of this analysis, the aim of the present study was to reconstitute, without quinpirole treatment, each of the putative components, with the expectation that these would self-assemble into compulsive checking. To reconstitute vigor and satiety, the employed treatment was a bilateral lesion of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), as this treatment was shown previously to exaggerate these components. To reconstitute focus, the employed treatment was a low dose of the serotonin-1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrochloride (DPAT) (0.0625 mg/kg), as high doses of this drug induce compulsive behavior and exacerbate focus. Results showed that injection of DPAT to NAc lesion rats did yield compulsive checking. Neither the drug alone nor the NAc lesion by itself produced compulsive checking.

It was 5000 bp in length with a G+C content of 66 mol% The plasm

It was 5000 bp in length with a G+C content of 66 mol%. The plasmid pPRH was predicted to encode six putative open reading frames (ORFs), in which ORF2 and ORF3 formed the minimal replicon of plasmid pPRH and shared 55–61% and 60–69% homology, respectively, with the RepA and RepB proteins of reported Bortezomib rhodococcal plasmids. Sequence analysis revealed a typical ColE2-type ori located 45 bp upstream of the gene repA. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis led to the conclusion that pPRH is a representative of a novel group of pAL5000 subfamily of ColE2 family plasmids. Three shuttle vectors pRMU824, pRMU824Km and pRMU824Tc, encoding chloramphenicol resistance, were constructed.

The latter two harboured additional antibiotic resistance genes kan and tet, respectively. All vectors successfully replicated in Escherichia coli, Arthrobacter and Rhodococcus

spp. The vector pRMU824Km was employed for functional screening of 2-hydroxypyridine catabolism encoding genes from Arthrobacter sp. PY22. Sequence analysis of the cloned 6-kb DNA fragment revealed eight putative ORFs, among which hpyB gene encoded a putative monooxygenase. Escherichia coli is the dominant screening host for functional metagenomics (Taupp et al., 2011). Although E. coli can support the expression of genes from numerous donor genomes, the main limitations in using E. coli cells for functional selleck chemical screens are recognition of promoters, protein maturation and cofactor requirements in heterologous genes and proteins. One of the opportunities to expand the diversity of the expression Rebamipide systems is to create new ones based on different microorganisms and intrinsic genetic elements such as phages,

plasmids or transposons (Uchiyama & Miyazaki, 2009). The bacteria of genus Arthrobacter are Gram-positive, nonmotile obligate aerobes that belong to class Actinobacteria (Zhi et al., 2009). Arthrobacter species are very common in soils and often constitute an important or even dominant culturable fraction of the microbial communities. A main feature of arthrobacters is their nutritional versatility coupled with the ability to grow in simple media utilizing a wide range of compounds as a source of carbon and nitrogen (Cacciari & Lippi, 1987; Jones & Keddie, 1992). Recently, these microorganisms have received considerable attention because of their potential use in detoxification of xenobiotics (Eaton, 2001; Brandsch, 2006; Shapir et al., 2007), while the genetic tools applicable for manipulation of cells of Arthrobacter spp. are not well developed. Different strains of the genus Arthrobacter harbour plasmids varying in size from 41 to 380 kb (Igloi & Brandsch, 2003; Mongodin et al., 2006; Jerke et al.

Some limitations of this study deserve attention The study does

Some limitations of this study deserve attention. The study does not allow determining whether the observed reactions are indeed a response to a change of residence or rather a response to a change of routine associated with a change of residence. However, in both cases, novelty is the common Daporinad molecular weight denominator to which individuals react. Future studies will have to address this issue. The interpretation of the observed responses as stress-reactions is tentative as no specific psychological measures of stress were used. However, as reactions to novelty commonly are described as stress–responses in literature,[10, 11, 50] we consider interpreting the findings as “stress–response”

as appropriate. A selection bias cannot be ruled out as study participants were solely recruited from individuals planning a stay at the health resort. However, spa therapy being covered by health insurance in Austria, selection based on income or

education is unlikely. In conclusion, this study shows that a travel-related temporary change of residence (CoR) leads to a mild stress response in humans as documented by an increase in BP and a disruption of sleep. BP responded already on DNA Damage inhibitor the day before CoR, indicating the effect of travel anticipation. Individual differences did not affect the response to any large extent. The findings have several implications. First, humans are sensitive to staying overnight in a novel environment. Second, individuals looking for restoration VDA chemical should consider several day stays as the restorative potential of a single day may be dampened by the novelty response. Third, tourist providers possibly could decrease the novelty response by providing experientially accessible information so tourists can get a “feeling” for their destination beforehand. Fourth, vacation studies and studies on resort-based spa therapy should not rely on measures taken on the days immediately preceding or following the onset of the stay, as these measures could be distorted by

the documented novelty response. The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest. “
“Objective. To evaluate whether changes in attack rates of fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are related to changes in pretravel vaccination practices or better hygienic standards at travel destination. Methods. National surveillance data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of travel-related hepatitis A, shigellosis, and typhoid fever diagnosed in the Netherlands from 1995 to 2006 were matched with the number of Dutch travelers to developing countries to calculate region-specific annual attack rates. Trends in attack rates of non-vaccine-preventable shigellosis were compared with those of vaccine-preventable hepatitis A and typhoid fever. Trends were also compared with three markers for hygienic standards of the local population at travel destinations, drawn from the United Nations Development Programme database: the human development index, the sanitation index, and the water source index.

For this noninterventional study in our patient cohort, a votum o

For this noninterventional study in our patient cohort, a votum of the AMC ethics committee was not required. The main outcome measure was the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of TRD. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated by dividing Natural Product Library the number of TRDs by traveled time in weeks. IRRs were calculated as the IR of specific groups of travelers (eg, travelers with underlying

conditions) divided by the IR of a reference group (eg, healthy travelers). Confidence intervals for IRRs were calculated using episheet. We compared duration of TRD in days in those treated with pre-travel and during travel prescribed antibiotics and duration of travel in days for persons with and without TRD using an independent samples t-test. Statistical analysis was performed using PASWstatistics18 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). The study population included 420 patients

who were found eligible. Baseline Y-27632 research buy characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1. The telephone questionnaire was answered by 345 of 420 (82.1%) patients and 100 of 123 (81.3%) healthy travelers. Main groups consisted of travelers with HIV, a reduced gastric barrier, diabetes mellitus, and immune-suppressants, as shown in Table 2. Of 345 patients, 90 were aged over 60. Many of these 60+ travelers had a cardiac disorder (37/90, 41%), a reduced gastric barrier (32/90, 35.6%), or diabetes mellitus (15/90, 16.7%). At least one health problem was reported in 144 (39.7%) patients. We excluded 45 noninfectious health problems, resulting in 99 (27.8%) relevant health problems. Compared to healthy travelers, all pre-existing conditions had a high risk of TRD (Table 2). The highest IRRs were found for travelers using immune-suppressants, specifically Morin Hydrate transplant-related drugs, prednisolone,

and antimetabolites. HIV positives with CD4 counts <500/µL and those with reduced gastric barriers also had high IRRs. No difference was found between age >60 and <60 within the group with underlying conditions [IRR 1.03, 95% CI (0.64–1.65)]. Protective hepatitis B serology was observed among 78 of 420 (18.6%) travelers with a medical history. In 71 (91.0%) travelers, serologic protection (anti-HBs GMT > 10UI/L) was recorded. In 7 (9.0%) travelers, serology showed an active hepatitis B infection. In addition, 27 (6.4%) travelers of the same group were vaccinated against the virus but protection was not verified serologically. Among the other 315 (75%) travelers with a medical history, all serologic markers were either negative (8.1%) or unknown (66.9%) (data not shown). Popular destinations were Africa (36.4%), Asia (31.9%), and Central/South America (19.6%) (Figure 1). Countries visited most frequently were Indonesia (61 visits), Surinam (55 visits), Ghana (39 visits), and Thailand (35 visits). Table 3 shows the effect of travel destinations compared to Southeast Asia on TRD. The highest IRRs were observed for travelers to Central America [IRR 2.78, 95% CI (0.

02) Conclusions  Home visits and telephone contacts conducted 6

02). Conclusions.  Home visits and telephone contacts conducted 6 monthly from birth are effective in reducing ECC prevalence by 24 months. “
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Aim.  To investigate the root canal microbiota of primary teeth

with apical periodontitis and the in vivo antimicrobial effects of a calcium hydroxide/chlorhexidine paste used as root canal dressing. Design.  Baseline samples learn more were collected from 30 root canals of primary teeth with apical periodontitis. Then, the root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste containing 1% chlorhexidine for 14 days and the second bacteriologic samples were taken prior to root canal filling. Samples were submitted to microbiologic culture procedure to detect root canal bacteria and processed BEZ235 datasheet for checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization. Results.  Baseline microbial culture revealed high prevalence and cfu number of anaerobic, black-pigmented bacteroides, Streptococcus, and aerobic microorganisms. Following root canal dressing, the overall number of cfu was dramatically

diminished compared to initial contamination (P <0.05), although prevalence did not change (P > 0.05). Of 35 probes used for checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization, 31 (88.57%) were present at baseline, and following root canal dressing, the number of positive probes reduced to 13 (37.14%). Similarly, the number of bacterial cells diminished folowing application of calcium hydroxide/chlorhexidine root canal dressing (P = 0.006). Conclusion.  Apical periodontitis is caused by a polymicrobial infection, and a calcium hydroxide/chlorhexidine paste triclocarban is effective in reducing the number of bacteria inside root canals when applied as a root canal dressing. “
“International Journal

of Paediatric Dentistry 2012; 22: 116–124 Background.  Intracanal medication is important for endodontic treatment success as it eliminates microorganisms that persist after biomechanical preparation. Aim.  To evaluate the effect of two intracanal medications against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Enterococcus faecalis in the root canals of human primary teeth with necrotic pulp with and without furcal/periapical lesion, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Design.  Thirty-two teeth with necrotic pulp were used. Twelve teeth did not present lesion, and 20 teeth presented radiographically visible furca/periapical lesion. Microbiological samples were collected after coronal access and biomechanical preparation. The teeth were medicated with calcium hydroxide pastes prepared with either polyethylene glycol or chlorhexidine. After 30 days, the medication was removed and a third collection was performed. Microbiological samples were processed using qRT-PCR. Data were analysed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests (α = 0.05). Results.  There was no significant difference in the microbiota present in the primary teeth with and without furcal/periapical lesion.

We recruited all patients with RA who were ever on TNFi for a min

We recruited all patients with RA who were ever on TNFi for a minimum duration of 3 months at our centre. Based on the European League Against

Rheumatism response criteria, subjects were further divided into responders and non-responders. see more Age-matched RA patients who were on conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and in remission were enrolled as controls. Subjects were tested for quantitative values of IgA, IgM, IgG RF and anti-citrulinated cyclic peptides (CCP). Further, all subjects were assessed for the disease activity score that includes 28 joints (DAS28) and Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) 8-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI). A total of 31 subjects with RA who had received TNFi and 15 controls were enrolled in this study. There was a trend for the non-responders (n = 10) to have higher levels of all isotypes of RF and anti-CCP. However, only the IgA RF and anti-CCP levels were significantly higher in the non-responder group compared to the responders

and controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.034, respectively). On multivariate analysis, learn more only the IgA RF remained significant (OR 0.989; 95% CI 0.980–0.999; P = 0.026). IgA RF is potentially a novel predictor of response to TNFi in RA patients. Testing for pretreatment IgA RF levels could be a reasonable consideration before commencement of TNFi. “
“Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability with incidence and prevalence rising in most nations. Management to address the degenerative joint is stratified according to degree of severity of involvement and always begins with non-surgical modalities before progressing through a range of surgeries, including arthroscopy, osteotomy, unicompartmental and total knee replacement. Predictability of results depends on the type of procedure with total joint replacement giving the most sustainable relief from symptoms, improvement of function and longevity of construct. Obesity is a health

priority in developed countries where it is overrepresented in patients presenting for joint replacement. Complications, poor patient satisfaction and joint function can be directly attributable Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase to obesity. Efforts to address obesity should be considered as part of the approach to managing osteoarthritis. “
“Cyclophosphamide efficacy in lupus nephritis (LN) and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is probably mediated by a non-specific ablation of reactive lymphocytes. However, little is known in regard to its effect on T regulatory cells (Tregs) in such patients, which was the aim of this study. Ten Caucasian lupus patients were included, six with LN classes IV–V (mean age 33.8 ± 8.8 years) and four with NPSLE (mean age 35.5 ± 8.8 years, clinical manifestations: 1/4 acute confusional state, 1/4 psychosis, 2/4 refractory seizures).

1% between F aquatile and Flavobacterium reichenbachii to 949%

1% between F. aquatile and Flavobacterium reichenbachii to 94.9% between F. xanthum and F. omnivorum. The phylogenetic trees based on the gyrB sequences (Figs 2 and S2) show that the groups found in the 16S rRNA gene dendrogram (Figs 1 and S1) were confirmed. The

Antarctic Flavobacterium groups generally showed lower gyrB gene sequence similarity to neighbouring groups and species, which confirmed their status as potentially new species. Flavobacterium sp. 13 and sp. 5, which, in the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, were closely related to F. micromati and F. gelidilacus, respectively, also group with these species in the gyrB phylogeny. Both groupings are well supported; however, the gyrB similarity of Flavobacterium sp. 13 to F. micromati LMG 21919 (97.0%) is higher than that of Flavobacterium sp. 5 to F. gelidilacus LMG 21477 (91.9%). Flavobacterium sp. 13 probably belongs to F. micromati that was originally buy Lumacaftor isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes (Van Trappen et al., 2004) as were the isolates of Flavobacterium sp. 13 (Table 1). Flavobacterium sp. 5 probably represents a new species in view of the rather low gyrB gene sequence

similarity to F. gelidilacus in comparison with the higher similarity values obtained between some type strains. Nevertheless, the precise relation to F. gelidilacus, find more another species from Antarctic microbial mats (Van Trappen et al., 2003), remains to be investigated further. The similarities within the delineated Flavobacterium groups are generally very high for the 16S rRNA gene sequences (Table 3). The gyrB sequences were mostly also very similar within groups and ranged from 97.2% to 100% (Table 3). In Flavobacterium sp. 2, sp. 8 and sp. 13 (Figs 2 and S2) subclusters

were observed with 97.2–99.0% sequence similarity. In other genera, comparable high intraspecies gyrB gene sequence similarities were observed, for example 98.5–100%gyrB gene sequence similarity within the genus Streptomyces (Actinobacteria) (Hatano et al., 2003), 97.4–100% within the genus Aeromonas Protirelin (Gammaproteobacteria) (Yanez et al., 2003), 95.0–100% within the genus Bacillus (Firmicutes) (Wang et al., 2007) and 94.6–100% within the genus Helicobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) (Hannula & Hanninen, 2007). It should be noted that all Flavobacterium groups studied here comprised several rep-types (Peeters et al., submitted) and the strains were chosen to represent this diversity. The topologies of the neighbour-joining and the maximum likelihood dendrogram were slightly different for the 16S rRNA gene compared with the gyrB gene (Figs 1, 2, S1 and S2), as has also been observed for other groups (Yamamoto & Harayama, 1996). However, overall, the phylogenies of the 16S rRNA (Figs 1 and S1) and gyrB (Figs 2 and S2) gene were similar and confirmed the division of the Antarctic strains into 15 groups, one probably belonging to F. micromati and one close to F. gelidilacus.

Conflicts of interest: SV has received honoraria

for coll

Conflicts of interest: SV has received honoraria

for collaborating with Laboratorios Dr Esteve, and BC for serving on the advisory boards of Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Merck and Janssen-Tibotec. The other authors have no conflict of interest to declare. Author contributions: SV, GS and BC designed and wrote the study protocol. GS MDV3100 clinical trial and JC visited and interviewed the patients; MPC and LD performed HPV detection and genotyping; PC, FG-C, MP and SV collected specimens; ML analysed the anal cytology samples; LD, MPC, SV, JC and BC wrote the manuscript; and the statistical analysis was performed by RM-L. All the authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. “
“Sustained optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has Alectinib been shown to decrease morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. However, incomplete adherence and treatment interruption (TI) remain challenges to the full realization of the promise of cART. We estimated trends and predictors of treatment interruption and resumption among individuals in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration. cART-naïve individuals ≥ 18 years of age who initiated cART between 2000 and

2011 were included in the study. We defined TIs as ≥ 90 consecutive days off cART. We used descriptive analyses to study TI trends over time and Cox regression to identify factors predicting time to first TI and time to treatment resumption after a first TI. A total of 7633

participants were eligible for inclusion in the study, of whom 1860 (24.5%) experienced a TI. The prevalence of TI in the first calendar year of cART decreased by half over the study period. Our analyses highlighted a higher risk of TI among women [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–1.92], younger individuals (aHR 1.27; 95% CI 1.15–1.37 per decade increase), earlier treatment initiators (CD4 count ≥ 350 vs. < 200 cells/μL: aHR 1.46; 95% CI 1.17–1.81), Aboriginal participants (aHR 1.67; 95% CI 1.27–2.20), injecting drug users (aHR 1.43; 95% CI 1.09–1.89) and users of zidovudine vs. tenofovir in the initial cART regimen (aHR 2.47; 95% CI 1.92–3.20). Conversely, factors predicting treatment resumption were Tacrolimus (FK506) male sex, older age, and a CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μL at cART initiation. Despite significant improvements in cART since its advent, our results demonstrate that TIs remain relatively prevalent. Strategies to support continuous HIV treatment are needed to maximize the benefits of cART. "
“We aimed to characterize depression in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, to determine the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on its incidence, and to investigate whether efavirenz use was associated with a higher risk, compared with non-efavirenz-containing regimens, in the Spanish CoRIS cohort.

Carers’ difficulty in obtaining

information and advice ab

Carers’ difficulty in obtaining

information and advice about medicines was compounded by their desire to allow the care-recipient to retain autonomy over their medicines as long as possible. This study highlights the distinct needs and problems with regard to medicines-management when caring for a person with dementia. As the prevalence of dementia rises, interventions designed to address these specific aspects of reduce carer-burden should be a priority for health professionals. “
“Objectives  To determine the characteristics and workforce issues of community pharmacy practice in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Compound Library screening Methods  Data collection was by

anonymous cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were distributed by hand to 700 community pharmacies to collect information about the participating pharmacists, pharmacy characteristics, the types of products and professional pharmacy services available to patients, and the barriers to offering professional services. Key findings  A total of 344 pharmacists (49%) ATR activation responded. Most were male (64%), had been in practice for less than 10 years (mean = 9.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.4–10.0) and were trained in India (35%) or Egypt (15%). The pharmacies were open for business 7 days/week (mean = 6.8, 95% CI = 6.7–8.8) with an average working day of 13 h (mean = 12.9, 95% CI = 12.7–13.2) and were mostly owned by independent non-pharmacists (70%). The pharmacies employed on average 2.6 full-time-equivalent (FTE) pharmacists (95% CI = 2.3–2.8) with 74% employing 1.8

FTE pharmacy assistants (95% CI = 1.7–2.0) and 47% employing trainee pharmacists Inositol oxygenase (mean = 1.8 FTE, 95% CI = 1.6–2.0). Around three-quarters of the pharmacies dispensed fewer than 100 prescriptions (75%) and responded to fewer than 100 requests for over-the-counter medicines (69%) per day. Most pharmacists encountered limited immediate access to up-to-date resources. Conclusions  This is the first study to explore the characteristics of community pharmacy practice in the UAE. The study provides baseline data which are critical to inform the development of strategies to improve the quality of community pharmacy services in the UAE. “
“E. Schafheutle The University of Manchester To enable pharmacists to be clinical professionals, policy and regulation need to facilitate innovation, and changes to education and/or practice need to be informed by robust research. My lecture will be structured into two parts: Firstly, it will follow pharmacists from student to practitioner, and secondly it will describe a study undertaken to inform developments in community pharmacy practice.