To the best of our knowledge, few studies have investigated the n

To the best of our knowledge, few studies have investigated the neural responses

to visual stimuli of food in the state of conscious suppression of motivation to eat by assessing electric or magnetic signal changes, and their association with the intensity of subjective motivation to eat. It is expected that elucidation Vorinostat chemical structure of the mechanism of suppression of the motivation to eat will facilitate the development of objective tools for assessment and therapeutic strategies for various eating disorders characterized by irresistible impulse of motivation to eat. In the present study, brain activities were measured using MEG in fasting individuals in response to the presentation of food pictures in the following two settings: (1) when one authentically expresses one’s own motivation to eat the food (motivation sessions), and (2) when one sets one’s intention that one must not eat the food (suppression sessions). The brain areas related to the suppression of appetitive motivation were determined by comparing MEG responses between these two sessions using the time–frequency analyses. In addition, to support the MEG data, correlation analyses were performed between the MEG responses and the subjective

scores of motivation to this website eat during the MEG recordings. Before the MEG recordings, all participants rated their subjective level of hunger as almost excessive [1.9±0.3 (mean±SD) on a 5-point Likert-type scale]. The number of items for which participants reported having motivation to eat among 10 food items was 8.4±1.8 (mean±SD) during the motivation session, whereas the number of items for which the motivation to eat was suppressed was 9.3±1.4 (mean±SD) during the suppression session. These results indicate that participants were hungry and that they successfully experienced

the motivation to eat and its suppression. In order to identify the brain regions specifically related to the subjective Depsipeptide nmr levels of suppression of appetitive motivation during the MEG recordings, correlation analyses were performed. The higher level of β-band (13–25 Hz) event-related synchronization (ERS) of the suppression sessions relative to the motivation sessions was identified 200–300 ms after the start of food picture presentation in the left precentral gyrus [Brodmann's area (BA) 6] corresponding to the supplementary motor area (SMA) ( Fig. 1A). The β-band ERS in the SMA was negatively correlated with the number of food items for which the participants had motivation to eat ( Fig. 1B; P=0.041). In contrast, higher level of θ-band (4–8 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) during the suppression sessions relative to the motivation sessions was identified 500–600 ms after the start of food picture presentation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 46) corresponding to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) ( Fig. 2A).

1) Fig 2 is a general scheme, generated as a result of break-ou

1). Fig. 2 is a general scheme, generated as a result of break-out group discussions, on the use of alternative approaches used by different industrial sectors and how they are often used as compounds progress from identification to products, along the development pipeline. Naturally, there are a number of similar approaches

where it is not only ethical to avoid animal testing but it makes good business sense to screen compounds for both efficacy and safety using appropriate non-animal models. The point at which animal tests come into the research and development process may be driven by regulation or FDA-approved Drug Library purchase by the lack of an alternative for the evaluation being undertaken. It should be pointed out that strategies that involve a small number of animals at early stages of development may actually reduce the overall numbers of animal procedures that may have identified a toxicological issue much later in development. Therefore refinement and reduction are often forgotten but still very important steps in the overall 3R target. In all sectors an initial evaluation of new chemicals is often made based on their physicochemical properties, e.g. solubility, logKow P, pH, pKa and molecular weight. Assumptions as to likely corrosive effects can be made if the chemical has an ‘extreme’ pH value (⩾11.5 or ⩽2), especially

if it is to be applied topically (it may be corrosive or a skin or eye irritant, for PI3K inhibitor example). In order to screen potentially thousands of compounds, many companies incorporate the use of in silico models (listed in Table 2). As part of a risk assessment of possible systemic toxicity, in addition to the characterization of the hazard, the likely

systemic exposure of the chemical has also to be taken into account. This will differ between industries since pharmaceutical companies usually aim to reach a significant target therapeutic plasma concentration and assess the compound on a risk-to-benefit basis. Since the intended exposure target is potentially Osimertinib mw high, consideration of the risk-to-benefit is important in the pharmaceutical industry (more so than the chemical or cosmetics industry) and the weight of this ratio may also differ according to the different product types (e.g. cancer therapy versus diabetes). For chemicals industries it is key to assess the likely exposure under occupational conditions. In vitro assays are used by all sectors of industry for safety testing but the need for in vitro models in risk assessment will differ according to the needs of the different industrial sectors and the specific question that needs to be addressed. Appropriate models of varying complexity are often used by different sectors to address specific organ toxicity.

Ellipsoid plots are generated in the standard way [25] and [30]:

Ellipsoid plots are generated in the standard way [25] and [30]: a

unit sphere is scaled by the moduli of the eigenvalues in the three primary directions, rotated into the principal axis frame of the tensor and translated to the point of the corresponding nucleus. Blue axes are drawn inside for positive eigenvalues and red axes for negative eigenvalues. Dipolar interaction tensors are not visualized – inter-nuclear AG-014699 solubility dmso dipolar coupling is visually apparent from the distances and electron–nuclear dipolar coupling is contained in the hyperfine interaction. In systems with multiple electrons, the inter-electron dipolar coupling is either contained in the distances (in the individual electron spin representation) or in the zero-field splitting tensor (in the total electron spin representation). It is often the case in Magnetic Resonance simulations that electrons do not have specific Cartesian coordinates, being instead delocalized over the nuclear ensemble and manifesting themselves through hyperfine interactions. For this reason electrons are drawn separately Selleckchem Selumetinib in the lower part of the central area of Fig. 3. Electron interaction ellipsoids rotate synchronously with the rest of the molecule, but the electrons themselves (visualized as translucent blobs)

do not move around the visualization window. Zero-field splitting tensors and g-tensors are visualized as ellipsoids centered on their corresponding electrons and inter-electron exchange couplings are shown as coils with the amplitude Interleukin-2 receptor mapped to the color. A summary of the visualization methods is given in Table 1. Visualization tab in the upper part of the main window controls the appearance and scaling of the ellipsoids as well as magnitude-color maps in the 3D view using logarithmic sliders. Visualization of individual interactions may be switched on and off using the tick boxes. NMR and EPR buttons switch the 3D view to the visualization of the corresponding interactions – shielding, shift, J-coupling,

quadrupolar coupling for the NMR mode; g-tensor, hyperfine coupling, exchange coupling, zero-field splitting for the EPR mode. The primary format for spin system data storage and retrieval is SpinXML, but the GUI can also import Gaussian 03/09 logs (*.log, *.out), Cartesian XYZ files (*.xyz, coordinates only, isotopes are guessed) and both versions of CASTEP files (*.magres). When multiple instances of the relevant tables are present in the file (e.g. multiple coordinate sections in geometry optimizations), the last section is read. For Gaussian 03/09 calculations, the detailed printing option is required in the route section of the input file. Electronic structure theory calculations often produce large quantities of small interactions (e.g.

amentacea was rather low, varying from a minimum of 3 67% observe

amentacea was rather low, varying from a minimum of 3.67% observed at T0 to a maximum of 10.3% observed at T1. In contrast, the δ13C values of C. amentacea increased at both locations ( Table 1) while δ13C enrichment in U. lactuca was negligible ( Fig. 2). U. lactuca δ15N values were significantly higher after 48 h at all sampling sites in the Gulf (t-test, p < 0.001), varying between 7.53 ± 0.14‰ and 8.58 ± 1.39‰ in the 4 macroareas with a minimum 15N enrichment of about 2‰ at Formia. The average increase in C. amentacea was 1‰ at all sampling areas except the Rapamycin cell line northern Vendicio area, where 15N enrichment was 1.6‰ ( Table 2 and

Fig. 3). There were no significant differences in algal isotopic enrichment between the two bathymetries (Table 2; Wilcoxon t-test, n.s.), nor was there any significant relationship between δ15N and distance from the coastline (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, n.s.). At the south-eastern sites, the isotopic difference between T0 and T1 in U. lactuca was high throughput screening compounds higher than at the north-western sites, generating a north-west–south-east δ15N gradient, especially

at the bathymetry of 5 m ( Table 2 and Fig. 3). Two statistically different areas can be distinguished, with Scauri–Garigliano showing higher δ15N values (8.4‰) than Gaeta–Vendicio (7.6‰) at T1 (t-test; p < 0.05). Within each of these two areas, values were found to be spatially autocorrelated up to 1.5 km (p = 0.08; Fig. 4).

Marine coastal waters are the final recipients of nutrients translocated from land (Howarth, 2008 and Swaney et al., 2012), but their precise source and distribution can be difficult, costly and time-consuming to determine. The results of this study show that in Mediterranean coastal waters, anthropogenic sources of nitrogen (N) can be rapidly monitored using the opportunistic macroalga U. lactuca as a probe. This macroalga was found to assimilate dissolved N, displaying altered N stable isotope ratios in the polluted area with respect to the unpolluted area after 48-h exposure. filipin Macroalgae directly reflect the availability and isotopic composition of N sources thanks to their capacity to take up and store excess N in their tissues, with little or no fractionation during N uptake across a wide range of nutrient concentrations ( Cohen and Fong, 2005 and Lin and Fong, 2008). Variability in δ15N values among replicate fronds of U. lactuca, collected from coastal intertidal areas of the reference location, decreased dramatically after 48-h exposure, meaning that the isotopic signature converged to values typical of the deployment sites. This exposure time was much shorter than in similar studies with other algae ( Costanzo et al., 2005 and García-Sanz et al., 2011). U. lactuca has a high surface/volume ratio and a high nitrogen uptake rate ( Rosenberg and Ramus, 1984, Taylor et al., 1998 and Taylor et al.

1b Therefore total capacitance (CTot) at electrode surface/elect

1b. Therefore total capacitance (CTot) at electrode surface/electrolyte solution interface could be described by Eq. (2). equation(2) 1GTot=1Cins+1Ccapt+1CdlWhen the analyte hybridizes on capture probe, consequently this increases the thickness and the length of the capture probe layer. The displacement of the diffuse mobile layer created during the potentiostatic pulse will cause a decrease in total capacitance, which is strictly proportional to the analyte concentration. The surface should Ibrutinib research buy be designed so that, the capacitance of the insulating

layer, Cins is high as possible that allows the capacitance from the binding of analyte to be detected. This change in capacitance due to binding of PF-02341066 cost analyte was used for detection. A positive potential pulse of 50 mV was applied each sixty second at the modified electrode (working electrode), which gives a current response signal. The current was sampled and the total capacitance was obtained by taking the logarithm of Eq. (3) equation(3) i(t)−uRsexp(−tRsCTot)where, i(t) is the current in the open circuit (RC model) as a function of time, u is the applied pulse potential, Rs is the dynamic resistance of capture probe layer, CTot is the total capacitance measured between the gold electrode surface and the electrolyte solution interface, and t is the time elapsed after the potentiostatic step was applied. The technique is described in detail elsewhere

[22]. Hybridization of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on the capture probe caused CTot to decrease. Then, the capacitance change, ΔC, could be determined as a difference between the two base lines, before and after injection of the sample. A baseline was considered stable when a standard deviation of an average of the last five measuring points of a registered total capacitance is <1 nF. The necessity

to evaluate an average of five capacitance values was previously mathematically proved [26]. However, standard deviation of <1 nF was introduced based on previous observations (data not shown) that the signal for the lowest concentration Etomidate (10−12 M) of the target analyte tested in this study, was clearly observed when the standard deviation of the 5 average points of the baseline before injection of the analyte was <1 nF. Hybridization of target DNA was initially performed at RT. Oligo-G probes of different lengths (15-, 25- and 50-mer) were injected into the system at different concentrations, i.e. 10−8, 10−9, 10−10 and 10−11 M. The result in capacitance change of each oligo-probe length was registered and evaluated. In the analytical step using DNA-sensors, higher temperatures are often needed in order to improve the selectivity of the sensor. However, it is necessary to know the influence of the temperature on the electrode modified surface in order to understand whether a measured capacitance is caused by changes to temperature or by any other event on the electrode surface.

The next step for the WT 10 3 group was to make a conceptual mode

The next step for the WT 10.3 group was to make a conceptual model (Fig. 6) of Himmerfjärden based on Table 1, following a template given by Tom Hopkins, the coordinator of the SPICOSA project. This template was called ‘streamlining for a systems approach’ and was distributed to all members of the WT group. Fig. 6 shows a conceptual model of this streamlining approach adapted CH5424802 clinical trial to Himmerfjärden. The cause-and-effect diagram describes the variables and processes linked to the main management issue i.e. eutrophication in SSA Himmerfjärden and suggests how to use remote sensing as diagnostic tool for

monitoring eutrophication. The diagram was prepared for the first progress report in December 2007 [37] and was iterated here after feed-back from the

members of the WT 10.3 group. Secchi depth was also identified click here as a link in SPICOSA between the ecological model and satellite data. Secchi depth is highly correlated with the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, Kd(490), which is a common product of satellite data. Local Kd(490) and Secchi depth algorithms were derived [28] from in situ optical measurements and it was also demonstrated how these algorithms can be applied to MERIS data in order to derive Kd(490) and Secchi depth maps from space ( Fig. 1 and Fig. 4). The Kd(490) algorithm was shown to be more robust than the Secchi depth algorithm when applied to other MERIS scenes. It was therefore decided that Kd(490) should be SPTLC1 used as an optical indicator for eutrophication in the operational remote sensing system, keeping in mind that it is possible to derive Secchi depth reliably from

it. During the SPICOSA stakeholder meetings, Kd(490) and chlorophyll maps from the operational remote sensing system were presented to the local stakeholder group as well as to possible end-users of the operational system. The relationship to Secchi depth was emphasized throughout meetings. The stakeholders showed a great interest in these maps, as they provided better spatial information than can be derived from single point measurements. Some of the stakeholders and researchers working in monitoring were also astonished about the spatial extent of the coastal influence ( Fig. 4). Kd(490) relates to the Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) diffuse attenuation, Kd(PAR) in the Baltic Sea [28] and [38]. This makes Kd(490) maps derived from satellite imagery applicable in a variety of ecological and oceanographic models that use light as one of the external drivers of the system. The MERIS-derived maps provide a cost-effective tool to spatially extend point measurements or existing ecological models of Himmerfjärden into areas that are less frequently monitored. The conceptual model shown in Fig.

Lastly, we thank the Brain, Behavior, and Immunity senior editori

Lastly, we thank the Brain, Behavior, and Immunity senior editorial staff for their support of this special issue. The authors of this manuscript have nothing to declare. Nicole Saiontz provided editorial support and Kate McNeil provided administrative management for the special issue. The National Cancer Institute Network on Biobehavioral Pathways in Cancer provided scientific consultation for the development of the Figure. Figure illustration by Ethan Tyler. Figure design selleck by Will Bramlett. “
“The article published in this journal with the code [2011;52(3):130–134]

and the name “The Efficacy of Creamatocrit Technique in Evaluation of Premature Infants Fed With Breast Milk” (authored by Hsiang- Yu Lin, Hsin-Yang Hsieh, Hung-Hsin Chen, Hsiao-Yu Chiu, Hung-Chih check details Lin, Bai-Horng Su) has a correction. The affiliation of the corresponding author “Bai-Horng Su” has been updated as shown above. “
“The article published in this journal with the code [2011;52(2):113–116] and the name “Acute Onset of Dizziness Caused by a Cavernous Malformation Lateral to the Fourth Ventricle: A Case Report” (authored by Wen-Chieh Yang, Jiun-You Chen, Kang-Hsi Wu, Han-Ping) has a mistake. The spelling of the author “Jiun-You Chen“ should be corrected to “Chun-Yu Chen”. “
“This article [2012;53(2):133–137] titled

“Clinical Impacts of Delayed Diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s Disease in Newborn Infants”, published in this journal, has a mistake. The spelling of the author name “Ming-Chou Chian” in the author byline should be corrected to “Ming-Chou Chiang”. The authors apologize for this

oversight. “
” Il émanait de la personne de Francis Giraud une empathie naturelle qui retenait son interlocuteur. D’emblée, celui-ci était mis en confiance et livrait ce qu’il n’avait jamais encore eu la possibilité de dire. Cette PRKD3 allure bonhomme ne devait pourtant pas tromper. Derrière cette avenance, une volonté affirmée d’aller de l’avant. Des convictions bâties depuis l’enfance, et qu’il s’attachait à parfaire. Avec une authenticité qui ne se cachait pas, Francis Giraud savait d’un mot rappeler d’où il venait, ce qui l’habitait et ce qui le faisait aimer la vie. Une sorte de bon sens tranquille ramenait toujours les arguments les plus compliqués à des mots simples. En fait, cet homme aimait les hommes. Sa vie entière en est une démonstration aussi simple qu’éclatante. Il avait reçu de ses parents la foi du charbonnier, le sens de la famille et le goût de la médecine. Il y avait, réunis chez cet homme, les ingrédients d’une vie heureuse. Sa foi, il n’en parlait qu’en confidence en distinguant bien ce qui revenait à la laïcité républicaine. Il s’attachait à une grande tolérance pour ne jamais s’éloigner de la douleur des gens quelles que soient les circonstances. Le sens de la famille était son second héritage.

05) at the same number of sampling stations (6 of 7) ( Figs 5 an

05) at the same number of sampling stations (6 of 7) ( Figs. 5 and 6). For E. coli, cross-shore variable mortality models also had similar skill ( Fig. 5). That said, the ADGI model (including both cross-shore variable and solar-induced mortality)

performed slightly better than the other three, reproducing E. coli decay rates accurately (p < 0.05) at the greatest number of sampling stations (6 of 7) ( Fig. 6). The superior performance of cross-shore variable mortality models for both FIB groups at Huntington Beach highlights the need for further research regarding the spatial variability of FIB mortality in nearshore systems. Our data were insufficient to distinguish among the various cross-shore variable FIB mortality hypotheses Vincristine mouse we explored, and thus the mechanisms selleck underlying this variability remain unknown. Given the superior performance of the ADGI model for E. coli, however, special attention should be paid to processes that cause cross-shore gradients of insolation,

such as turbidity. Field-based microcosm experiments could be useful in this regard. Based on the exponential FIB decay observed during our study our models focused on extra-enteric FIB mortality. FIB, however, have been reported to grow and/or undergo inactivation/repair cycles in aquatic systems (Boehm et al., 2009 and Surbeck et al., 2010). For this reason our estimated mortality rates are better interpreted as net rates, including some unknown combination of

mortality, inactivation, and growth. E. coli, for example, has been shown to exhibit elevated growth rates in highly turbulent flows ( Al-Homoud and Hondzo, 2008). Thus one interpretation of our cross-shore variable net mortality rates for E. coli (low in the surfzone and higher offshore) could be a relatively constant baseline mortality rate with some level of additional growth (lower net mortality) in the surfzone. Similarly, it is possible that some portion of the FIB loss we attribute to mortality (surfzone or offshore) is instead inactivation due to photodamage, and that some of these damaged FIB could undergo repair and recover. STK38 This would make actual FIB mortality rates lower than those estimated from our models ( Boehm et al., 2009). More extensive experiments, monitoring a broader range of biological parameters, are required to piece together the processes contributing to the patterns in net FIB mortality revealed by our Huntington Beach FIB models. Although observed FIB decay has often been attributed to mortality alone, and can likewise be attributed to physical processes alone (e.g., the AD model), we have shown the importance of including both mortality and advection/diffusion in models predicting nearshore FIB concentrations.

On the afternoon of 24 November a

On the afternoon of 24 November a Afatinib swell was measured, where the significant wave height was between 0.4 and 0.5 m and the associated peak wave period was over 7 s. The speed of the wind, blowing from the SW, measured at the Kessulaid weather station was < 5 m s−1. The wave spectrum during this time was shifted towards lower frequencies compared to the spectra from stormy conditions (Figure 6). At first glance, we could explain this swell as a consequence of the strong, 23 m

s−1, NNW wind on 23 November. But the wind dropped some 12 h (Figure 2) before the first signs of swell. Therefore, it is rather unlikely that long swells could flow into the Suur Strait from the rather shallow Väinameri area. Examining the HIRLAM wind field for this period (24 November), one could see a SW storm in the Gulf of Riga with wind speeds of up to 18 m s−1 (Figure 7). The wind speed decreased significantly towards Pictilisib the Väinameri and matched the measured value at Kessulaid. Thus, the swell at the measurement site can be explained as having been generated by the SW storm in the open Gulf of Riga. The wave field is described by the long fetch (the S wind), the short fetch (the NNW wind) and the swell spectrum during the observation period (Figure 6). As one can see, the southerly wind on 14 November generated a rather broad spectrum, which had its maximum at

0.16 Hz and a secondary, lower peak at 0.3 Hz. The NNW wind on 23 November, 23 m s−1, on the other hand, generated a spectrum where the peak frequency was 0.27 Hz. This was because the NNW winds had a shorter fetch than the southerly winds, so that its spectrum was shifted towards higher frequencies. For the swell coming

from the south, Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) the spectrum peak was located at 0.13 Hz and the tail of the spectrum contained less energy. The wave-induced and current-induced shear velocities were calculated from the measured time series of waves and currents (Figure 8). The critical shear velocity for the resuspension of grains 0.25 mm in size, which corresponds to the fine sand common to the Väinameri, is 1.4 cm s−1 (Kuhrts et al. 2004). All wave events when the wind was blowing from the south induced sediment resuspension, and the highest shear velocities were obtained during the strong (15 m s−1) southerly wind event on 18 November. Note that the extreme northerly wind event on 23 November did not induce shear velocities larger than the critical value, but it is possible that the swell the next day led to resuspension. For the current-induced shear velocity, the critical value for resuspension was slightly exceeded only on 24 November, when current speeds of up to 0.4 m s−1 generated shear velocities of up to 1.5 cm s−1 in the bottom boundary layer. The root mean square difference between the wave- and current-induced shear velocities was 1.05 cm s−1. The triple-nested wave model with the same bathymetry and forcing as the circulation model was used.

Compared to the vehicle treated group (V group), a significant in

Compared to the vehicle treated group (V group), a significant increase in the percentage of positive cells/the percentage intensity of the total apoptotic nuclei was observed following 24 h of single dose of B(a)P [subgroup BP(+24h)] in liver whereas in the lungs, it was similar to the vehicle treated group (Figs. 4A and 4B). It was observed that compared to subgroup BP(+24h), mice on control diet for 24, 72 and 120 h [subgroups

BP(+48h), BP(+96h), BP(+144h)] showed an increase in apoptotic cells as judged by the percentage of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells (apoptotic index) and/or the percentage intensity of total apoptotic nuclei in the liver and lungs of mice. Interestingly, mice that were shifted to the 0.05% curcumin diet and killed at 72 and 120 h [subgroups

BP(+96h) + C 72 h, selleck chemicals llc BP(+144h) + C 120 h] showed further increase in B(a)P-mediated apoptosis as seen by an increase in numbers of apoptotic cells as well as the percentage intensity of total apoptotic nuclei compared to BP(+24h) and respective XL184 chemical structure time-matched controls [subgroups BP(+96h) and BP(+144h)] (Figure 4 and Figure 5). These observations thus suggest that dietary curcumin further enhances the B(a)P-induced apoptosis, which would indirectly confer protection due to increased removal of adduct containing cells. As observed in experiment 1, 5-10% and 20-35% of total apoptotic cells (apoptotic index) were detected in the liver and lung tissues of vehicle [V(+24h), V(+8d), V(+15d), V(+29d)] or vehicle + curcumin [V(+8d) + C 7d, V(+15d) + C 14d, V(+29d) + C 28d]-treated subgroup, respectively VAV2 (Figs. 4 C and 4D). It was observed that compared to subgroup BP(+24h), mice on the control diet for 7 days [subgroup BP(+8d)] showed an increase in apoptosis as judged by an increased percentage of positive cells (apoptotic index) and/or the percentage intensity of

total apoptotic nuclei in the liver and lungs of mice whereas a relative decrease in apoptosis in the liver was observed in mice on the control diet for 14 and 28 days [subgroups BP(+15d), BP(+29d)] (Figure 4 and Figure 5). Interestingly, mice that were shifted to the 0.05% curcumin diet and killed at 7, 14 and 28 days did not show significant difference in the level of apoptosis in the liver and lungs of mice compared to BP(+24h) and respective time-matched controls [subgroups BP(+8d), BP(+15d), BP(+29d)]. However at 8 days, in the liver mice showed a decrease in the percentage of positive apoptotic cells (apoptotic index) and/or the percentage intensity of total apoptotic nuclei (Figure 4 and Figure 5). An observed decrease in DNA adducts without enhancement in the levels of apoptosis in the liver and lungs suggests a role of DNA repair and/or dilution of BPDE-DNA adducts in tissue cells. Further, to confirm and compliment the post-treatment effects of dietary curcumin in enhancement of apoptosis measured by TUNEL assay, protein levels of apoptosis-related markers were analyzed in the liver and lungs of mice by immunoblotting.