“Definition: This statement refers to the use of antiretro

“Definition: This statement refers to the use of antiretroviral

therapy (ART) by HIV-positive individuals to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV. There is now conclusive randomized clinical trial evidence, from heterosexual couples where one partner has HIV infection and the other does not, that if the partner who is HIV positive is taking effective ART, transmission of HIV through vaginal sex is significantly reduced (by 96%) [1]. The observed reduction in HIV transmission in a clinical trial setting demonstrates that successful ART use by the person who is HIV positive is as effective as consistent condom use in limiting viral transmission. The risk of a person

living with HIV, who is taking effective ART, passing HIV on to selleck chemicals llc sexual partners through vaginal intercourse is extremely low, provided that the following conditions BMN 673 solubility dmso are fulfilled. There are no other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in either partner*. The person who is HIV positive has a sustained plasma viral load below 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL for more than 6 months and the viral load is below 50 copies/mL on the most recent test. Viral load testing to support the strategic use of ART as prevention should be undertaken regularly (3–4-monthly)‡. The published data are largely from heterosexual couples and there are insufficient data to conclude that successful ART use can provide similar levels of protection in relation

to other sexual practices, including unprotected anal intercourse between men or between men and women. However, it is expert opinion that an extremely low risk of transmission can also be anticipated for these practices, provided that the same conditions stated above are met. With the level of evidence available, it is Forskolin molecular weight recommended that health care professionals discuss with all people living with HIV the impact of ART on the risk of viral transmission to sexual partners. For those not yet taking ART and wishing to reduce the risk of transmission, the possibility of starting ART for this purpose should be discussed. Such discussion should establish that there is no evidence of coercion and that the person with HIV infection is fully informed of the need to commit to long-term adherence to ART, frequent STI screening (3–6-monthly dependent on risk)* and regular viral load measurements, and is aware of the potential side effects of therapy. It must be noted that no single prevention method can completely prevent HIV transmission. ART reduces the risk of transmission only of HIV. Irrespective of ART, condoms remain the most effective way to prevent the spread of other STIs.

The minimal bactericidal concentrations

(MBC) were expres

The minimal bactericidal concentrations

(MBC) were expressed as the range a–b, in which a corresponds to the highest concentration in which bacterial growth was observed and b corresponds to the lowest concentration that kills GPCR Compound Library supplier 100% of the cells. Three biological replicates were used for the determination of MBC. Total RNA was isolated from mid-log suspensions of the strain 9a5c incubated or not with 50 μM of gomesin at 28 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The RNA concentration was determined using an ND-1000 spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, DE) after treatment with RQ1 RNAse-free DNAse (Promega, Madison, WI), and its reliability was evaluated by electrophoresis on formaldehyde-agarose gels. cDNA labeling and hybridization of microarray slides were performed as described previously (Zaini et al., 2008). A detailed description of the microarray can be found in Koide et al. (2004) and Zaini et al. (2008) and at the NCBI’s Gene www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo) under accession number GPL2708. Data represent six biological replicates with at least two technical replicates each. Microarray data acquisition, normalization and analysis were performed as detailed by Koide et al. (2004). A gene was considered differentially expressed when >66.5% of the biological replicates were

outside the intensity-dependent cutoff curves obtained by self–self hybridization experiments (Koide et al., 2004; Zaini et al., 2008) and exhibited a fold-change >2.0. The complete data set has been submitted to the GEO database according to MIAME guidelines and is accessible through GEO series accession number GSE17605 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE17605).

Forskolin cell line RT-qPCR was performed in the GeneAmp 5700 thermocycler (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA) as described previously (Zaini et al., 2008). Data from two biological replicates with three technical replicates were used to calculate the relative changes in coding sequence (CDS) expression levels as described (Zaini et al., 2008). Mid-log suspensions of the strain 9a5c of X. fastidiosa were transferred to glass flasks and incubated with 50 μM gomesin, streptomycin 1 μg mL−1 or water as control. After 4 days at 28 °C, the walls of the glass flasks were examined to evaluate biofilm production as described (Kjaergaard et al., 2000). Two independent biological experiments were assayed in triplicate. Mid-log suspensions of strain 9a5c or strain J1a12 of X. fastidiosa were incubated with 25 or 50 μM gomesin or water as a control. After 18 h at 28 °C, cells were harvested by centrifugation at 3000 g for 10 min at 25 °C, washed twice in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and suspended in PBS. The resulting bacterial suspensions were used to mechanically inoculate Nicotiana clevelandii plants as detailed (Lopes et al., 2000).

Dr GP Taylor’s department has received research grants from Abbot

Dr GP Taylor’s department has received research grants from Abbott. Dr A Palfreeman has received conference support from Bristol-Myers Selleck LY294002 Squibb and Gilead. Miss P Clayden has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr J Dhar has received conference support from ViiV. Mrs K Gandhi has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr Y Gilleece has

received lecture and consultancy fees from ViiV. Dr K Harding has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr D Hawkins has received lecture fees from Janssen, consultancy fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, and his department has received research grant support from Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr P Hay has received lecture and consultancy fees from Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson and Johnson (Tibotec) and ViiV. He has received conference support from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead and Janssen and his department has received research grant support from Staurosporine concentration Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim, Gilead, Janssen and ViiV. Ms J Kennedy has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr N Low-Beer has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr H Lyall has received lecture fees from Danone and ViiV. Dr F Lyons has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr D Mercey has no conflicts

of interest to declare. Dr P Tookey has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr S Welch has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr E Wilkins has received lecture and consultancy fees from Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Janssen, Merck Sharp and Dohme and Pfizer. BHIVA revised and updated the Association’s guideline development manual in 2011 [1]. BHIVA has adopted the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system for the assessment, evaluation and grading of evidence and the development

of recommendations [2,3]. 1A Strong recommendation. High-quality evidence. Benefits clearly outweigh risk and burdens, or vice versa. Consistent evidence from well-performed, randomized, controlled Oxalosuccinic acid trials or overwhelming evidence of some other form. Further research is unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of benefit and risk. Strong recommendations, can apply to most patients in most circumstances without reservation. Clinicians should follow a strong recommendation unless there is a clear rationale for an alternative approach. 1B Strong recommendation. Moderate-quality evidence. Benefits clearly outweigh risk and burdens, or vice versa. Evidence from randomized, controlled trials with important limitations (inconsistent results, methods flaws, indirect or imprecise), or very strong evidence of some other research design. Further research may impact on our confidence in the estimate of benefit and risk. Strong recommendation and applies to most patients. Clinicians should follow a strong recommendation unless a clear and compelling rationale for an alternative approach is present. 1C Strong recommendation. Low-quality evidence.

Across Europe, almost one-third of individuals infected with

Across Europe, almost one-third of individuals infected with

HIV do ROCK inhibitor not enter health care until late in the course of their infection [1,2]. Despite attempts to encourage earlier testing for HIV, this situation has remained stationary for several years without evidence of improvement. Late presentation for care is harmful to the infected person [3–5] is more costly [6] and is harmful to society [7]. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs is therefore crucial and remains inadequate across Europe, and is further complicated by the lack of a common clinical definition of late presentation. In untreated HIV-infected persons, the risk of developing an AIDS-defining condition increases exponentially as the CD4

cell count drops, being particularly high in those with a CD4 count <200 cells/μL [8,9]. The longer therapy is delayed when clinically indicated, the poorer the patient outcome [10]. Recent guidelines [from the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS), World Health Organization (WHO) Europe, International AIDS Society (IAS) and British HIV Association (BHIVA)] advocate antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all untreated persons with a CD4 count <350 cells/μL, and for some patient groups with a higher CD4 cell count [11–15]. Recently, it has been suggested that HIV may also accelerate the course of various end-organ diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease and liver disease, and check details may increase the risk of contracting non-AIDS-defining malignancies [16,17]. This suggestion was initially supported by data from the SMART trial, which found that those interrupting ART had higher rates of these diseases than those Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin who remained on ART, but a strong link between the CD4 cell count and many non-AIDS diseases has also been seen in several observational studies [17]. These diseases are more common than AIDS diseases at CD4 counts higher than 350 cells/μl [18]. In the literature,

more than 20 different definitions have been cited for a late presenter [19]. A common definition would be helpful to more effectively manage late presentation of HIV disease across Europe and elsewhere. It would also facilitate cross-country or regional comparisons, and allow investigation of temporal trends after targeted interventions. Of note, health policy is a European Union (EU) member-state matter and not defined at the EU level; this in part explains why divergent definitions have emerged in various countries across Europe. Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition of what is meant by a ‘late-presenting’ patient. The ‘Late presentation for HIV treatment in Europe’ programme was initiated in November 2008 in Glasgow and culminated in March 2009 with a 2-day meeting on the challenges of late presentation for HIV treatment in Europe.

Contraindications to altitude exposure beyond 20 weeks of gestati

Contraindications to altitude exposure beyond 20 weeks of gestation include co-existing hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, anemia, and maternal smoking. Acetazolamide is also contraindicated in pregnant women.93 Should an extended stay at altitude be necessary for a pregnant woman, extra vigilance in the form of frequent prenatal checks is necessary to promptly identify problems that may arise.14

Little is known about the specific effects of altitude on patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP). However, it is well known that patients with RP are at increased risk of cold injury. Because the high altitude environment may include extremes of cold, these patients should travel to altitude during warmer months or to high altitude destinations with less severe climates. However, should they travel in winter climates, these individuals should take extra precautions to maintain the warmth of their extremities. High Crizotinib quality boots and mittens are essential; disposable chemical handwarmers are

also recommended.120 Calcium channel blockers (eg, nifedipine) are the drugs of choice for the treatment of RP and should be considered in patients with RP who wish to participate in cold weather recreation at altitude.121–123 Patients who have undergone radial keratotomy to correct their myopia are at risk of significant visual deterioration at high altitude. The incisions made during this procedure weaken the cornea and cause Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor it to deform with exposure to hypoxic conditions.124 Progressive hyperopic shift with deterioration in both near and far vision has been reported in a number of mountaineers at high altitude.124–126 Patients who have undergone radial keratotomy should travel to altitude with multiple pairs of corrective spectacles with varying degrees of correction click here for hyperopia.127 Some people who have undergone myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) also experience significant visual changes with high altitude exposure.128–130 The visual changes correct with descent to low altitude or with prolonged altitude exposure131 but

can persist for a number of weeks following descent. It is recommended that patients allow a minimum of 6 months following LASIK before traveling to altitude. Patients who have undergone myopic LASIK should carry spectacles with myopic corrective power while at altitude.128 The carotid bodies provide the stimulus for the hypoxic ventilatory response to hypoxia and thus their function is key to high altitude acclimatization and prevention of AMS.131,132 Neck irradiation or surgery involving one or both of the carotid arteries can potentially damage or ablate the carotid bodies, and thus alter or eliminate their function. Roeggla and colleagues132 analyzed blood gas samples taken at moderate altitude from four patients before and after unilateral carotid endarterectomy.

Backup circuits are available in the injured hemisphere but are b

Backup circuits are available in the injured hemisphere but are blocked from use by the spared hemisphere. Altering activity in specific ipsi- and contralesional http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PLX-4032.html brain

areas through temporary deactivation or subsequent lesion unmasks the backup circuits and restores visual function (Sprague, 1966; Wallace et al., 1990; Durmer & Rosenquist, 2001; Lomber et al., 2002). In particular, invasive cooling deactivation of the contralesional visuoparietal cortex produces recovery of function, but restoration of function is only observed during deactivation of the cortex; when the deactivation ceases, the recovery disappears (Lomber et al., 2002). The current study applied cathodal tDCS to the contralesional visuoparietal cortex to reduce excitability and restore visual function. Unlike cooling deactivation, tDCS is non-invasive and exhibits lasting effects that may accrue with repeated application.

Therefore, 70 sessions of cathodal tDCS were administered over the course of 14 weeks. The results support the utility of using multiple sessions to maximise the effect of tDCS on neural function, and represent the first demonstration that a large number of tDCS sessions can improve recovery from brain injury. Experiments were performed on four domestic short-haired female adult cats (> 6 months old) obtained from a licensed USDA-approved cat breeder (Liberty Labs, Waverly, NY, USA). All procedures were performed in accord with the

NIH guidelines governing laboratory animal use, and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the Boston DNA Damage inhibitor University School of Medicine. The cats were housed together in an enriched environment and placed on a 12-h light–dark cycle. Data from this cohort were also compared to three control animals with equivalent unilateral lesions that did not undergo any form of tDCS. Metalloexopeptidase Over a 2-month period, cats (n = 4) were trained and tested (~ 8500 trials) on tasks designed to assess their ability to detect, orient to and approach moving visual targets (Lomber & Payne, 1996; Payne et al., 1996; Rushmore & Payne, 2004; Valero-Cabré et al., 2006). All testing and training was performed in an 88-cm-diameter semicircular white arena that was enclosed by 28-cm-high walls and that contained evenly spaced openings at the union of the floor and the wall (Fig. 1). When the lateral canthi of the animal’s eyes were lined up with the most eccentric openings and the midline of the animal was in line with the cynosure of the semicircle, each of the holes then corresponded to 15° increments of visual angle, extending from left 90° to right 90°. The standard moving perimetry task was designed to test the subject’s visual spatial performance on targets presented at the horizontal meridian representation of the left and right visual hemifields (Fig. 1A; Sprague, 1966; Lomber & Payne, 1996; Payne et al., 1996, 2003).

cruzi proteins were subjected to, which might include cleavage of

cruzi proteins were subjected to, which might include cleavage of the C-terminal region (which includes the his tag sequence); and (4) the yeast cells might accumulate extra amounts of ScCox10 and/or ScCox15 proteins, but might not do so for the T. cruzi ones, which may be MAPK Inhibitor Library more exposed to protease attack and degraded faster. The results obtained here did not differentiate between these hypotheses,

but they allowed us to postulate that the amount of T. cruzi proteins detected was sufficient to restore the respiratory capability of yeast mutants to WT levels, recovering the biosynthesis of heme A. Type aa3 cytochrome c oxidase was identified as the main terminal oxidase in epimastigotes, and the heme A signal was detected in epimastigotes using differential absorption spectroscopy (Stoppani et al., 1980; Affranchino et al., 1986). In addition, we showed that TcCOX10 and TcCOX15 sequences encode for functional HOS and HAS proteins in the yeast model. Selleckchem Opaganib In order to find out whether the TcCOX10 and TcCOX15 genes are being differentially transcribed during the life cycle, their mRNA levels were quantified by qRT-PCR at different life stages. We observed that both genes were transcribed, and the data obtained showed that TcCOX10 mRNA (Fig. 4a) varied more than TcCOX15 mRNA (Fig. 4b) during the life cycle. However, in amastigotes, we observed

that the amount of mRNA for both genes was significantly lower compared with the other stages (P<0.05 for all comparisons between amastigotes and every other stage for both genes, see Supporting Information, Appendix S1). Little is known about the metabolic changes that occur when the parasite invades

host cells. BCKDHB A recent study showed that when the parasite differentiates into an amastigote in the host cell cytoplasm, a metabolic switch occurs (Silber et al., 2009). It is possible that the differences observed in TcCOX10 and TcCOX15 gene expression could be related to the metabolic adaptation afforded by the parasite, reflecting alterations in respiratory requirements in the different life stages. Although mRNA quantification is not a direct measure of protein level or function, it is capable of reflecting a direct relationship. In a recent study, Wang et al. (2009) described the relationship between S. cerevisiae COX10 and COX15, proposing that these enzymes might play another unidentified role besides heme A biosynthesis. These results confirmed the expression of the genes encoding TcCox10 and TcCox15 enzymes from T. cruzi at different life stages. Notwithstanding, complementary studies are necessary to discern whether Cox10 and Cox15 could have another physiological function in T. cruzi. In conclusion, T. cruzi metabolism must adapt to different environments during its life cycle in which the parasite is under different nutritional pressures. It presents auxotrophies for various cofactors, including heme.

Listeria monocytogenes M, originally isolated from bacon, was obt

Listeria monocytogenes M, originally isolated from bacon, was obtained from the collection of the Centre Wallon des Bio-Industries (Gembloux, Belgium). It is sensitive to the bacteriocin produced by wt and was used as an indicator and to artificially contaminate meat samples. It was spread SCH727965 molecular weight regularly over Palcam agar (Oxoid, Beauvais, France) plates and activated in tryptone soy broth (Biokar, Beauvais, France) at the time of its use. Strains mt (obtained by curing wt of its plasmids) and LMGel (obtained by electroporation of LMG with a wt-derived plasmid) are described in

the present work. All strains were grown in the meat system described below (see Meat system and meat sampling) or on DeMan, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium (MRS, Biokar) (broth or with 1.5% agar, as specified). To avoid plasmid loss by the LMGel strain, MRS medium was rendered selective for plasmid-containing cells (see Results) by addition of streptomycin (50 μg mL−1) or by replacing 2% glucose with either 2%d-celobiose, 2% gentiobiose, or 1% of each of these sugars. The corresponding media are henceforth, respectively, called MRSStr, MRSC, MRSG, and MRSCG. All strains were stored at −80 °C in their respective media with added 40% glycerol

(v/v). Once the antibiotic sensitivity profile conferred by the identified plasmid was obtained (see RAD001 mouse Results), selection for its presence was carried out on a medium containing streptomycin (50 μg mL−1). The model food system used was as described by Kouakou et al. (2009), except that the meat was first rubbed with d-celobiose and gentiobiose (each at 1%) to favour plasmid stability in LMGel. Then, briefly, 50-g blocks of raw pork meat (listed characteristics: 60% moisture; 15% protein; 13% fat; 5% minerals; and 7% carbohydrates, pH 5.65, at 24 h) were transferred to sterile Stomacher bags, homogenized in deionized water, transferred to sterile bottles, nearly and coinoculated with L. monocytogenes and the specified L. curvatus

strain (103 CFU of each bacterium g−1). A control with only L. monocytogenes (initial concentration: 103 CFU g−1) was included. The treated homogenates were then incubated for 4 weeks at 4 °C. Meat samples (20 g crushed meat) were taken at the start of the experiment (day 0, before storage) and on days 7, 14, and 28. Samples were diluted with 10 mL of sterile saline (0.85% NaCl) and homogenized in a Stomacher bag. The method used to cure wt of its plasmid(s) combined heating, as described by Sonstein & Baldwin (1972), with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) treatment according to Collins & Harvey (1962). A single colony of wt was picked from an MRS agar plate, inoculated into 5.0 mL MRS broth, and grown overnight at 37 °C. Then 5.0 mL fresh medium containing SDS (1%) was seeded with 0.1 mL of culture and incubated overnight at 42 °C. This culture was centrifuged at 4424 g for 5 min.

The mechanism of action in producing oxidative stress resistance

The mechanism of action in producing oxidative stress resistance and morphogenetic transitions appears to be closely related, as strains lacking Ras1 and Cyr1 cease to demonstrate the same resistance as wild

type when exposed to hydrogen peroxide when preincubated with farnesol. The mechanism of action probably does not depend on the Hog1 pathway, as hog1 mutants fared no differently from the wild type when farnesol-mediated oxidative stress resistance was measured (Menon et al., 2006). The fact that farnesol induces such resistance indicates that it plays a role during infections, as ROS has been shown to play a central role in host defense against fungal pathogenesis (Jain et al., 2009). Furthermore, the induction of oxidative stress by macrophages PD-1/PD-L1 cancer is part of the defense repertoire against pathogens (Lorenz & Fink, 2001, 2002) and resisting such stresses is critical for survival of PLX3397 nmr Candida within macrophages. Thus, it is hypothesized that C. albicans, via farnesol-mediated resistance, may survive action by macrophages and neutrophils (Fan et al., 2007). If Candida survives the host ROS, it can differentiate into a hyphal form (which farnesol inhibits) and subsequently invade and lyse the host cell to escape. Inhibition of farnesol, and therefore the oxidative resistance it produces, promises new development strategies for antifungal drugs. Opposing the

action of farnesol is the aromatic alcohol tyrosol, a catabolic product of the amino acid tyrosine. In diluted cultures, tyrosol concentration is reduced and C. albicans experiences an exceptionally long lag phase before re-entering exponential growth (Chen et al., 2004). This long lag phase is abolished by the

addition of tyrosol to the culture medium. The dilution of exponential-phase culture may destabilize transcripts necessary for cell division; therefore, it is hypothesized that tyrosol stabilizes them, enabling exponential growth to proceed. Because tyrosol is released into the culture medium by C. albicans and has 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase a concentration-dependent behavior, it is an autostimulatory small molecule; however, unlike those observed in bacteria, it does not appear to explicitly upregulate its own production (Chen et al., 2004). Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not a threatening pathogen, it has been used as a model for fungal pathogenesis (McCusker, 2006). Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses at least two aromatic alcohols, phenylethanol and tryptophol (Chen & Fink, 2006), as environmental cues, whose effect is also dependent on population density. The ambient concentration of these aromatic alcohols, in turn, regulates morphogenesis by encouraging a transition from the unicellular morphotype to a ‘multicellular’ filamentous one. The biosynthetic pathway for the two alcohols is activated upon nitrogen starvation and repressed in rich medium.

25% w/v NaNO3 for 14 days at 28 °C Motility was assessed in a ha

25% w/v NaNO3 for 14 days at 28 °C. Motility was assessed in a hanging-drop preparation at × 1000 magnification from 24-h cultures in MB. The activities of constitutive enzymes and other physiological RGFP966 properties were determined using the API 20E, API 20NE, API 50CH strips

(bioMérieux) and Gram-negative MicroPlates (Biolog), according to the manufacturer’s instructions, except that the inoculum was prepared by suspending cells in sterile (121 °C/15 min) seawater. Susceptibility to antibiotics was investigated by the agar diffusion method using the filter discs containing antibiotics. The cell size and morphology, flagellation pattern and hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) were determined using transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained cells (Tindall et al., 2007) grown on MA at 28 °C for 1 day. Colonies of WH169T used for the examination of the presence of prosthecae and buds were grown on MA at 20 °C for 12 days. Ultrathin sections were prepared as described by Mast et al. (2005). Genomic DNA was extracted from 24-h-old cultures on MA plates using standard methods (Ausubel et al., 1995). The 16S rRNA gene (corresponding MK-1775 cost to positions 8–1510 in the Escherichia coli numbering system) was amplified and sequenced using bacterial universal primers as described previously (Liu & Shao, 2005). The near-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1232 nt) of strain WH169T

was submitted to GenBank and EMBL to search for similar sequences using the blast algorithm. The identification of phylogenetic neighbours and the calculation of pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were achieved using the EzTaxon server (http://www.eztaxon.org/; Chun et al., 2007). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the software package molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) version 4.0 (Tamura et al., 2007) after manual edition using bioedit Sequence Alignment Editor version 5.0.9 (Hall, 1999) and multiple alignment of data by clustalx (Thompson et al., 1997). The phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining L-gulonolactone oxidase (NJ) method, the maximum-parsimony (MP) method and the minimum evolution

(ME) method with Kimura 2-parameter model analyses implemented in the program mega version 4 (Tamura et al., 2007). Bootstrap values were calculated based on 1000 replicates. For fatty acid methyl ester, quinones and polar lipid analysis, the cell mass of strain WH169T and its phylogenetically closest species A. salexigens DSM 15300T were harvested after incubation at 28 °C in MB for 48 h. Fatty acid profiles for the two strains were determined as described previously (Xie & Yokota, 2003) using the sherlock system (MIDI). Analyses of respiratory quinones and polar lipid were carried out by the Identification Service of DSMZ and Dr B.J. Tindall, DSMZ. The G+C content of the DNA was determined using the method of Mesbah & Whitman (1989) using reverse-phase HPLC. WH169T was a short rod-shaped (0.6 × 1.1–1.