Multiple other serious neurological and ocular disorders also res

Multiple other serious neurological and ocular disorders also result find more from VZV reactivation. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the clinical and pathological complications of neurological and ocular disease

produced by VZV reactivation, molecular aspects of VZV latency, VZV virology and VZV-specific immunity, the role of apoptosis in VZV-induced cell death and the development of an animal model provided by simian varicella virus infection of monkeys. “
“Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) is a rare type of primary brain tumor. Although PGNT has traditionally been defined as a clinically indolent neoplasm, several cases with high proliferative activity and tumor recurrence have recently been reported. We report a case of PGNT in a 12-year-old boy who presented with epilepsy and harbored a 64 mm cystic tumor with a high proliferative component in the right temporal lobe. 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) showed high uptake in the solid mass. Gross total resection of

the tumor mass was achieved and the patient became seizure-free without any neurological deficits. Histologically, the tumor contained two distinct areas of a vasocentric papilliform structure and a desmoplastic component. Minigemistocytic cells and small necrotic regions were observed adjacent to the pseudopapillae. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed both glial and neuronal differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation Adriamycin supplier index was high (14%) in the area corresponding to the high uptake region in the 11C-methionine PET. No tumor recurrence was observed 20 months after surgery. High proliferative PGNTs Inositol monophosphatase 1 are rare and to our knowledge this is only the third pediatric case of PGNT with atypical features reported in the literature. Hence, we here review the reported cases of PGNT and discuss the clinical, radiological and histological features of this malignancy. “
“EphB2 is a member of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) family that is essential for the cell adhesion, neural crest migration, axon guidance and synaptogenesis in the nervous system. Recent studies show that preservation of EphB2 in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

rescues the cognitive deficit, suggesting a crucial role of EphB2 in AD. However, the expression and distribution profiles of EphB2 in the early stage of AD have not been reported. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and immunofluorescence were used to analyse the level of EphB2 in Tg2576 mice at different ages and in cultured neurones with Aβ treatment at different times. EphB2 was reduced in an age-dependent manner in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice. The decrease of EphB2 appeared earlier in the olfactory bulb than the hippocampus, and reduction of EphB2 appeared earlier than that of MAP2, a dendritic cytoskeleton marker. In the cortex, EphB2 displayed a significant translocation from the neuronal processes to the cell bodies with ageing.

Compared with placebo, rituximab

reduced the number of to

Compared with placebo, rituximab

reduced the number of total and total new gadolinium-enhancing lesions at weeks 12, 16, 20 and 24 (P < 0·001); these results were sustained for 48 weeks (P < 0·001). Rituximab-treated patients showed a significantly lower relapse rate than placebo-treated patients at week 24 (14·5 versus 34·3%, P = 0·02) and week 48 (20·3 versus 40·0%, P = 0·04). In CIDP, rituximab (1000 mg on days 1 and 15, or 375 mg/m2 in four weekly doses) provided clinical improvement after 2–12 months in up to 50% of patients ALK inhibitor [69-72]. High-quality evidence from randomized, controlled clinical trials, however, is still warranted [25]. Adverse effects, frequent: infusion-associated adverse events within 24 h after the first infusion, infections (nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections and sinusitis); infrequent: toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell syndrome) CYC202 in vivo and Stevens–Johnson syndrome, progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy in patients with cancer and autoimmune diseases. Ocrelizumab is a humanized, monoclonal, B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody, and ofatumumab represents

a human monoclonal B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody. Both are expected to provide better tolerability than rituximab; therefore, more recent clinical trials to investigate B cell-depleting strategies are conducted preferentially using these newer agents. Ocrelizumab is a humanized monoclonal B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody. Preparations and administration: ocrelizumab is administered intravenously on days 1 and 15. Clinical trials: a Phase II trial (a study of the efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab in patients with RRMS) with 220 patients with RRMS compared ocrelizumab (300 mg/day or 1000 mg/day i.v. on days 1 and 15) to IFN-β 1a (30 μg/week i.m.) and placebo for 24 weeks. Ocrelizumab reduced the absolute number of gadolinium-enhancing

lesions on MRI by 89% (600 mg, P < 0·0001) and 96% (2000 mg, P < 0·0001) compared to placebo. Moreover, annualized relapse rate was reduced by 80% (300 mg, P = 0·0005) and 73% (1000 mg, P = 0·0014), respectively, compared to placebo [73]. In an extension phase for a total of 96 weeks, there were no newly occurring gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI and a MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit sustained reduction of the annualized relapse rate was observed in both ocrelizumab treatment groups [74]. Based on these results, two Phase III trials with 800 patients with RRMS have been initiated (a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab in comparison to IFN-β-1a (Rebif®) in patients with relapsing MS – OPERA I and II) to compare ocrelizumab (1 × 600 mg i.v. every 24 weeks) plus placebo (3×/week s.c.) to IFN-β-1a (3 × 44 μg/week s.c.) plus placebo (1 × i.v. every 24 weeks) on the annualized relapse rate, the confirmed disability progression and different MRI parameters for 96 weeks [74].

Conclusion: C E R A was useful for renal anemia treatment Hb va

Conclusion: C.E.R.A. was useful for renal anemia treatment. Hb variability of C.E.R.A. and its effect for prognosis was similar with that of epoetin beta. CHOI SU JIN, KIM YOUNG SOO, YOON SUN AE, KIM YOUNG OK Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital Introduction: We have reported that arterial micro-calcification (AMC) of vascular access has a negative impact on access patency and cardiovascular

mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Reasons behind increased cardiovascular mortality in AMC are not fully understood, but it is believed that aortic stiffness is a major contributing factor. Whereas, coronary artery calcification (CAC) is quite common in HD patients and it is known as predictor of future cardiovascular events and all cause

mortality in HD patients. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between AMC and CAC in HD patients. Methods: We CYC202 manufacturer have reported Akt inhibitor that arterial micro-calcification (AMC) of vascular access has a negative impact on access patency and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Reasons behind increased cardiovascular mortality in AMC are not fully understood, but it is believed that aortic stiffness is a major contributing factor. Whereas, coronary artery calcification (CAC) is quite common in HD patients and it is known as predictor of future cardiovascular events and all cause mortality in HD patients. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between AMC and CAC in HD patients. Results: Mean age was 65.8 ± 12.5 years and the male gender was 37 (57.8%). The incidence of AMC was 62.5% (n = 40). The mean CACS was 439.3 ± 901.1 (0–5674.1), and the median value was 128.4. Patients with the positive AMC group showed a significantly older age (68.6 ± 10.2 vs 61.2 ± 14.7, p = 0.036) and a higher prevalence of diabetes (85.0% vs 45.8%, p = 0.001). Positive AMC group showed high incidence of high CACS compared to negative AMC group (77.5% vs 20.8%, p = 0.000). By binary logistic regression, high CACS was independently associated with positive AMC (OR 8.894, 95% CI 1.174–46.154, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The

present study suggests that AMC is closely associated with CACS in HD patients. IO HIROAKI, G protein-coupled receptor kinase NAKATA JUNICHIRO, AOKI TATSUYA, KANDA REO, YANAGAWA HIROYUKI, WAKABAYASHI KEIICHI, TOMINO YASUHIKO Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Introduction: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, the relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and weekly blood pressure (BP) is still unclear. The objectives of the present study are 1) to evaluate when or how BP should be monitored and 2) to evaluate whether echocardiographic parameters are independently associated with increased CV events in HD patients. Methods: This longitudinal study consecutively enrolled 130 HD patients.

Taken together, our results suggest that the zebrafish kidney con

Taken together, our results suggest that the zebrafish kidney contains RSCs capable of de novo nephron formation during kidney growth and regeneration and that HNF1b is a key, early-acting transcription factor that drives nephron formation. Our work provides insights into the mechanisms of renal regeneration and may lead to the development of novel therapies to treat kidney disease. TANG SYDNEY C.W. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong,

Hong Kong Recent progress in kidney regeneration includes the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells to kidney fates, understanding the proliferative capacity of tubules after injury, the use of mesenchymal stem cells

for kidney disease EPZ6438 and the role of the glomerular parietal epithelial cell. Glomerular diseases characterized by chronic proteinuria are the leading causes of chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Proteinuria contributes directly to progressive glomerulosclerosis through the suppression of podocyte regeneration and individual components of proteinuria exert distinct effects on renal progenitor survival and differentiation toward a podocyte lineage. In particular, albumin prevented podocyte differentiation from human renal progenitors in vitro by sequestering retinoic acid, thus impairing retinoic acid response element-mediated Selleck GDC 973 transcription of podocyte-specific genes. In mice with adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human FSGS, blocking endogenous retinoic acid synthesis increased proteinuria and exacerbated glomerulosclerosis. While mesenchymal stem cells have demonstrated potential for the prevention of acute kidney injury, little is known of its role in chronic kidney disease. Glomerular

Phospholipase D1 diseases characterized by chronic proteinuria are the leading causes of chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Renal prognosis in CKD is largely determined by the degree of renal tubular injury that correlates with residual albuminuria. Using a co-culture model of human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) and BM-MSCs, we showed that concomitant stimulation of BM-MSCs by albumin excess was a prerequisite for them to attenuate albumin-induced IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, CCL-2, CCL-5 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PTECs, which was partly mediated via deactivation of tubular NF-κB signaling. Albumin-overloaded BM-MSCs per se overexpressed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and TNFα-stimulating gene (TSG)-6 via P38 and NF-κB signaling. These paracrine factors suppressed both the proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotypes in albumin-induced PTECs. Neutralizing HGF and TSG-6 abolished the anti-inflammatory and anti-EMT effects of BM-MSC co-culture in albumin-induced PTECs, respectively.

abscessus, precise identification of these species would be impor

abscessus, precise identification of these species would be important for the treatment

of infected patients. Because of the very close relationship, the differentiation between M. abscessus and M. massiliense has largely depended on sequence analysis of several housekeeping genes (7, 31). Furthermore, in some strains, additional housekeeping genes were analyzed because of the discordant results between BGJ398 rpoB and hsp65 gene analysis (7, 13). As observed in the present study, the ambiguous two clinical isolates, which had finally been identified as M. massiliense by additional sequence analysis (7), were proven to have the typical erm(41) sequence of M. massiliense. This means that the small erm(41) found only in M. massiliense, but not in other RGM, provides a simple clue for the differentiation. Thus, we suggest that molecular methods targeting erm(41), especially erm(41) PCR, can be easily and efficiently used for the differential identification of M. massiliense from M. abscessus and M. bolletii in the clinical microbiological laboratory.

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2009-007-6884). H.-Y. Kim and B. J. Kim were supported by the third stage of the Brain Korea 21 Project. “
“The use of bacteria as probiotics is in continuous development, thanks to their capacity to maintain or restore a host’s natural microbiome by interference with and/or inhibition MAPK Inhibitor Library cell line of other microorganisms mediated by antimicrobial peptide production such as bacteriocins. In the oral cavity, Streptococcus salivarius, a non-pathogenic and predominant oral species, is one of the major bacteriocin producers that is able to coexist in this environment and reduce the frequency of colonization of the main pathogens involved in upper respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to screen oral bacteria colonizing healthy children

for their use as potential oral probiotics. Eighty-one Alectinib α-hemolytic streptococci isolated from nasal and/or pharyngeal swabs of 31 healthy children aged between two and twelve years were isolated. Among them, 13 α-hemolytic streptococci were selected for their bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against potential pathogens. These strains were tested for bacteriocin production and assayed for their capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cell lines. Our data showed that 13 bacteriocin producer strains were able to inhibit different gram-positive pathogens. Among them one strain, S. salivarius 24SMB, deposited as DSM 23307, was selected as a potential oral probiotic, thanks to its safety assessment, ability to inhibit Streptococcus pneumoniae and the absence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.

[45] The majority of studies regarding the T helper lineage gene

[45] The majority of studies regarding the T helper lineage gene expression and epigenetic programmes of CD4 T cells have been conducted using in vitro generated effector subsets. Whereas such experiments may be useful for looking at the potential of polarized cells to express genes that have been programmed under certain skewing

conditions, they may not fully represent what happens to memory T cells generated in vivo following the clearance of antigen. Hence, an important question that emerges is whether the cells that comprise the memory CD4 T-cell pool maintain their potential selleck screening library to recall a T helper lineage-specific gene expression programme. In other words, are epigenetic programmes maintained, such that memory CD4 T cells ‘remember’ the gene expression programme associated with cells at the effector stage (Fig. 1c)? This question highlights the need for epigenetic analysis of

antigen-specific memory CD4 T-cell subsets to provide insight into T helper lineage maintenance and plasticity upon boosting or re-exposure to pathogen. It is unclear to what extent memory CD4 T cells are derived from committed effector cells of each of these lineages. To this end, several studies have investigated the recall potential of Th1 memory cells. It has been shown that Th1 memory cells exist in vivo following

infection, and are derived from Tbet and IFN-γ-expressing Th1 effector cells.[46] Th1 memory cells exhibit minimal (or possibly delayed) selleck compound re-expression of CD62L and CCR7, suggesting that these cells are Th1 effector-memory cells.[46, 47] Besides Th1 memory cells, other studies have demonstrated the generation of and recall by Th2 committed memory cells,[48-50] whereas it is currently unclear whether long-lived Th17 cells can be generated following infection.[51] In addition, there may be central-memory cells that do not have commitment toward any of the T helper lineages, and following reactivation with Fenbendazole antigen, can potentially generate secondary effector cells of several different T helper lineages.[47] Given the complexity and extensive heterogeneity that exists within the memory CD4 T-cell pool, an important question is whether memory CD4 T cells transition through an effector stage. Again, interrogation of epigenetic modifications may prove particularly useful when focused on loci such as IFNg, IL4, IL17, and others that are associated with T helper lineage-specific functions. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which T helper lineages are maintained in the memory pool, and to further define memory differentiation at both the cellular and epigenetic levels.

7 Likewise, some miRNAs are found less expressed in choriocarcino

7 Likewise, some miRNAs are found less expressed in choriocarcinoma cells than in normal trophoblast, which

suggests a role in carcinogenesis.8 We focused on five miRNAs previously published to correlate with tumor grade, to be implicated in pregnancy, or to be related with members of the signaling intracellular cascade of LIF. For instance, miR-141, belonging to the miR-200 cluster, is found upregulated in nasopharyngeal and ovarian carcinomas in comparison with normal tissues and correlates with poor prognosis.9,10 As biological marker, levels of miR-141 are increased in plasma from pregnant women.11 Also, expression this website of miR-9 may serve as a biomarker, which correlates with tumor grade and metastatic status in breast and cervical cancer.12,13 Its inhibition results in increased levels of phospho-STAT3 in embryonic stem cells.14 Among the miRNAs selected for the present investigation, to date, miR-21 is the most extensively studied. Because of its over-expression in at least six different solid cancers (lung, stomach, prostate, colon, pancreas, and

breast), it has been considered an oncomir (reviewed in15). MiR-21 can be induced by STAT3.7 Mir-93 seems to be related with the trophoblast response AZD2014 chemical structure to hypoxia as it is upregulated in hypoxic trophoblast cells.16 MiR-93 shares some features with miR-141 and miR-21 as they all are expressed in human embryonic stem cells, but their effects in cell maintenance or differentiation seem to be dissimilar. While miR-93 expression remains similar also in adult tissue, miR-141 attenuates differentiation and miR-21 expression intensifies it.17–20 Finally, we selected let-7g, a member of one of the currently most important miRNA families (let-7), which is aberrantly expressed in human cancer.21 Let-7g and also miR-21 were expressed in vitro as well as in vivo via STAT3 activation after IL-6 stimulation.22 Although the LIF-induced STAT3 activation in trophoblastic cells seems to be crucial for many cell functions, thus far, the LIF-induced miRNA expression in these cells has not yet been investigated.

Therefore, in the present study, we aim to analyze the kinetics of the expression Sclareol of miR-9, miR-21, miR-93, miR-141, and let-7g after LIF treatment in JEG-3 cells. Being the most affected, influence of miR-141 on proliferation has been analyzed by its experimental over-expression and silencing. JEG-3 (DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany) is an adherent human choriocarcinoma cell line preserving several trophoblast-like capacities including production of pregnancy-related hormones and cytokines. JEG-3 cells cultures were performed at 106 cells/175 cm2 flask and maintained under standard conditions (37°C, 5% CO2, humid atmosphere) in Ham’s F-12 Nutrient Mixture with l-glutamine (Gibco, Paisley, UK) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS; Gibco) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin antibiotic solution (Gibco).

Age-related modifications included decreased pitch standard devia

Age-related modifications included decreased pitch standard deviation and increased number of syllables in speech to NH-AM infants and increased number of syllables in speech to HI and NH-EM infants across the 12-month period. These results suggest that mothers are sensitive to the hearing status of their infants and modify characteristics of infant-directed speech

over time. “
“Adult observers are sensitive to statistical regularities present in natural images. Developmentally, research has shown that children do not show sensitivity to these natural regularities until approximately 8–10 years of age. This finding is surprising given that even infants gradually encode a range of high-level statistical regularities Selleckchem NU7441 of their

visual environment in the first year of life, We suggest that infants may in fact exhibit sensitivity to natural image statistics under circumstances where images of complex, natural textures, such as a photograph of rocks, are used as experimental stimuli and natural appearance is substantially manipulated. We tested this hypothesis by examining how infants’ visual preference for real versus computer-generated synthetic textures was modulated by contrast selleckchem negation, which produces an image similar to a photographic negative. We observed that older infants’ (9-months of age) preferential looking behavior in this task was affected by contrast polarity, suggesting that the infant visual system is sensitive to

deviations from natural texture appearance, including (1) discrepancies in appearance that differentiate natural and synthetic textures from one another and (2) the disruption of contrast polarity following negation. We discuss our results in the context of adult texture processing and the “perceptual narrowing” of visual recognition during the Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase first year of life. “
“Although it is well accepted that parents greatly impact infant development, it is less clear which factors impact change in quantity and quality of parenting across infancy. This longitudinal study (N = 120 families) investigated how infant temperament and marital adjustment related to trajectories of mother and father involvement and sensitivity across infancy using multilevel models. Parental involvement (caregiving and play), infant temperament (surgency, negative affectivity, regulation), and marital adjustment were assessed from questionnaires when the infant was 3, 5, 7, 12, 14, and 20 months of age; parental sensitivity was coded from two episodes of the Still-Face Paradigm in early infancy (3, 5, and 7 months). On average, mothers showed higher levels of caregiving, play, and sensitivity than fathers. Mother caregiving, play, and sensitivity increased over time. Father caregiving and play also increased over time, whereas sensitivity did not change with age. Happier marriages were related to increased play for both mothers and fathers.

Hence, SD-4 gene deficiency appears to have little to no impact o

Hence, SD-4 gene deficiency appears to have little to no impact on leucocyte development. Moreover, up to 1 year of age, we observed no morphological nor developmental abnormality. Using functional blockade of SD-4 by antibody or Fc-fusion proteins, we showed previously that SD-4 is the ligand through which DC-HIL mediates its inhibitory function.[7] To study the influence of SD-4 expression on

the regulation of T-cell function, we first examined the capacity of T cells from SD-4 KO mice to mediate the inhibitory function of DC-HIL (Fig. 2). Specificity of the gene deficiency was confirmed by the inability of T cells to express SD-4 after activation (high expression by WT-T cells, see Supplementary RAD001 manufacturer material, Fig. S1), even as they were capable of expressing another inhibitory

molecule, PD-1 (Fig. 2a). We then examined the binding of activated T cells to DC-HIL (Fig. 2b), and found that those from WT mice bound strongly to soluble DC-HIL receptor (DC-HIL-Fc), whereas those from KO mice did not. Thereafter, we examined the ability of immobilized DC-HIL-Fc to inhibit T-cell activation triggered by anti-CD3 antibody. CD4+ T cells from WT or KO mice were cultured with immobilized anti-CD3 antibody (increasing doses) and DC-HIL-Fc (constant dose), and their activation was measured as proliferation. Selleck Napabucasin DC-HIL-Fc strongly inhibited proliferation of SD-4+/+ CD4+ T cells activated by anti-CD3 antibody at doses < 0·3 μg/ml, although doses > 1 μg/ml rescued the inhibition (Fig. 2c), consistent with our previous results using T cells from BALB/c mice.[6, 7] By contrast, the presence or absence of DC-HIL-Fc had no effect on the proliferation of similarly activated SD-4−/− CD4+ T cells. Loss of responsiveness to DC-HIL was also true for SD-4-deficient CD8+ T cells (Fig. 2d). We also probed the effect of SD-4 deficiency on cytokine expression by anti-CD3 antibody-activated

Dynein T cells in the presence or absence of DC-HIL-Fc (Fig. 2e). Interleukin-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α (for CD4+ T cells), and IL-2 and interferon-γ (for CD8+ T cells) were assayed from supernatants of T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody (0·3 μg/ml) plus DC-HIL-Fc or control immunoglobulin. In the absence of DC-HIL (anti-CD3 and control immunoglobulin), there was no significant difference in cytokine production by WT versus KO T cells (CD4+ or CD8+). Consistent with our previous data,[7] co-treatment with DC-HIL markedly inhibited the production of cytokines by SD-4+/+ T cells, whereas it failed to do so for SD-4−/− T cells. Rather, it caused some up-regulation compared with anti-CD3 alone. These results indicate that SD-4 is exclusively responsible for mediating the T-cell-inhibitory function of DC-HIL. SD-4−/− T cells showed similarly strong responsiveness to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation, compared with SD-4+/+ control cells (Fig. 2c,d).

, 2004; Zhekova, 2006a, b) In the medieval centuries, Haskovo wa

, 2004; Zhekova, 2006a, b). In the medieval centuries, Haskovo was an important albeit not unique trade center. PD98059 After the Balkan Wars, in 1913, a large Bulgarian minority from the Northern Greek Trakia immigrated and settled in Haskovo and the region. However, one should note that ST125 strains were not reported in Greece; this may

suggest a long-term specific circulation of this spoligotype in the Haskovo area since at least the 19th century. On the other hand, it is worth noting that MIRU-VNTR loci might evolve independently of the DR region, which may also result in an apparent controversial phylogeography of certain clones. Accordingly, another and completely opposite explanation of the pattern observed in MST in Fig. 3 is a convergent evolution of the VNTR loci toward a signature found in T1. Consequently, it could present not the ancestral, but the most recent variant within ST125 type. A question that may arise is why/whether the local human population in Bulgaria so differs from the neighbors

in surrounding countries that this could explain that a specific pathogenic bacterial strain (ST125) would be adapted uniquely to them. The analysis of both mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers revealed a homogeneity of Balkan populations while Bulgarians significantly differed from Turks and showed closer relationships with other South Slavonic populations (Zaharova et al., 2001; Bosch et al., 2006; Pereira et PI3K Inhibitor Library order al., 2009). Comparison in the wider European and Asian context revealed that Bulgarians are close to Western Europeans. Two major and ancient East–West expansions could account for this: the occupation of Europe by anatomically modern humans about 40 000 ya and the diffusion of agriculture into Europe in the Neolithic, 10 000–4000 ya (Calafell et al., 1996). In this view, neutral

mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers can hardly be exploited to explain host–microbial interaction leading to adaptation of the microbial genotypes to particular ethnic groups. In contrast, a study of genetic variations in human genes encoding key components of the immune system (e.g. TNF, VDR, DC-SIGN, NRAMP1/SLC11A1) and found to increase/reduce susceptibility to TB in certain ethnic groups (Bellamy, 2005) might provide interesting PTK6 insights. Recently, it has been shown that some M. tuberculosis genotypes may influence the clinical disease phenotype and demonstrated a significant interaction between host and bacterial genotypes and the development of disseminated tuberculosis (Caws et al., 2008). Unfortunately, no information on human genes related to differential susceptibilities to tuberculosis has been published for the Bulgarian population as yet. This limits further speculations about host-related factors responsible for the high rate of ST125 in Bulgaria.