The early diagnosis of patients with inherited endocrine tumors m

The early diagnosis of patients with inherited endocrine tumors may be performed either clinically or by mutation analysis in at-risk individuals. Early detection usually has β-Nicotinamide a large impact in tumor

management, allowing preventive clinical or surgical therapy in most cases. Advice for the clinical and surgical management of inherited endocrine tumors is also discussed. In addition, recent clinical and genetic advances for 17 different forms of inherited endocrine tumors are briefly reviewed.”
“Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) encode afferent information in the rate and temporal structure of their spike trains. Both spontaneous firing in these neurons and its modulation by synaptic inputs depend on Ca2+ current carried by Ca(v)2.1 (P/Q) type channels. Previous studies have described how loss-of-function Ca(v)2.1 mutations affect intrinsic excitability and excitatory transmission in PCs. This study examines the effects of the leaner mutation on fast GABAergic transmission and its modulation of spontaneous firing in PCs. The leaner mutation enhances spontaneous synaptic inhibition of PCs, leading to transitory reductions in PC firing rate and increased spike rate variability. Enhanced inhibition is

paralleled by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) measured under voltage clamp. These differences are abolished by tetrodotoxin, Nutlin-3a manufacturer implicating effects of the mutation on spike-induced GABA release. Elevated sIPSC frequency in leaner PCs is not accompanied by increased mean firing rate in molecular layer interneurons, but IPSCs evoked in PCs by direct stimulation of these neurons exhibit larger amplitude, slower decay rate, and a higher burst probability compared to wild-type

PCs. Ca2+ release from internal stores appears to be required for enhanced inhibition since differences in sIPSC frequency and amplitude in leaner and wild-type PCs are abolished by thapsigargin, an ER Ca2+ pump inhibitor. These findings represent the first account of the functional selleckchem consequences of a loss-of-function P/Q channel mutation on PC firing properties through altered GABAergic transmission. Gain in synaptic inhibition shown here would compromise the fidelity of information coding in these neurons and may contribute to impaired cerebellar function resulting from loss-of function mutations in the Ca(V)2.1 channel gene.”
“Cerebral infarcts can be overlooked or grossly underestimated in the second and third week after an ischemic stroke. We report a patient who presented with a vanishing stroke on a follow-up brain computed tomography scan, a condition known as the “”fogging effect” phenomenon.

0001) and when RF was delivered < 24 mm from the esophagus (se

0001) and when RF was delivered < 24 mm from the esophagus (sensitivity 91%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 75%, and negative predictive value 93%).

Conclusion: A thermal probe placed in the esophagus provides real-time T degrees monitoring and anatomic localization. A T degrees rise is more likely during ablation of left PVs and during RF deliveries within CA3 24 mm of the esophageal thermal probe. (PACE 2010; 33:1239-1248).”
“A 2-instrument set

comprising a half-circle axis marker and a degree gauge that facilitates precise placement of ink marks on the cornea is described. Guiding the half-circle axis marker by the previously positioned degree gauge ensures placement of the marks on the astigmatic axis line that transects the center of the cornea and overlies the index marks on the toric intraocular lens.”
“The chemical state evolution of the Al-Si-N thin films at various’ Si contents is investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

The detailed evolution of the Al 2p, Si 2p, and N Is photoelectrons line positions and widths are used to identify different chemical environments as the Si content is changed. The results are compared to x-ray diffraction (XRD) data that indicate the buy GSK690693 formation of a two-phase Al1-x SixN/SiNy composite when the solubility limit of 6 at. % of Si in AIN is exceeded. In contrast to XRD data, no particular effect is observed in the XPS data at the solubility limit of Si. Instead, two compositional regions can be identified that are separated by a distinct change in the evolution of selleck kinase inhibitor core level binding energy differences

and chemical shifts at about 10-15 at. % of Si. This silicon concentration is identified as the onset of the formation of a SiNy intergranular phase that is a few monolayers thick, having a chemical bonding similar to that in bulk silicon nitride. The observed changes in the XPS data coincide well with the structural changes in the material at different silicon contents. The unambiguous identification of phases, especially of minority phases from XPS data, is, however, not possible. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3460099]“
“Methods: Randomized trial of 22 patients with CPAF and indication for mitral valve surgery. Ten patients underwent conventional surgery (SURG) and 12 RF. To prove the efficacy of the blockage lines, epicardial pacemaker wires were placed in the isolated pulmonary veins region (IPVR) and right atria (RA).

Results: There were no differences in the baseline data among the groups. All patients remained in SR during the immediate postoperative period. Block lines were tested in patients who remained in SR during the following days (eight in SURG and nine in RF). The median value of thresholds to conduct the stimulus of IPVR for the RA was 18 mA in SURG and 3 mA in RF (P < 0.022). Eight SURG patients and seven RF patients (P < 0.38) remained in SR at hospital discharge.

CeeTox analyses using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE) resulted i

CeeTox analyses using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE) resulted in estimated C-Tox value (i.e., CA3 datasheet sustained concentration expected to produce toxicity in a rat 14-day repeat dose study) of 42 mu M for CNB-001 compared with >300 mu M for both NXY-059 and Radicut. The CeeTox panel suggests that CNB-001 produces some adverse effects on cellular adenosine triphosphate content, membrane toxicity, glutathione

content, and cell mass (or number), but only with high concentrations of the drug. After a 24-h exposure, the drug concentration that produced a half-maximal response (TC50) on the measures noted above ranges from 55 to 193 mu M. Moreover, all CNB-001-induced changes in the markers were coincident with loss of cell number, prior to acute cell death as measured by membrane integrity, suggesting a cytostatic effect of CNB-001. NXY-059 and Radicut did not have acute toxic effects on H4IIE cells. We also found that CNB-001 resulted in an inhibition of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity, indicating that the drug may affect cytochrome P4501A activity and that CNB-001 was metabolically unstable using a rat microsome assay system. For CNB-001,

an estimated in vitro efficacy/toxicity ratio AZD7762 Cell Cycle inhibitor is 183-643-fold, suggesting that there is a significant therapeutic safety window for CNB-001 and that it should be further developed as a novel neuroprotective agent to treat stroke.”
“Objective: Microtia is a developmental malformation of the external ear with genetic and environmental causes. The prevalence of microtia varies but several studies suggest increased incidence in Hispanic and African American populations. No causal genetic mutations have been identified in these populations. Mutations in the homeobox gene HOXA2 caused microtia in a single Iranian family.

Another homeobox gene, SIX2, acts downstream of HOXA2 during development and provides another possible candidate for mutational analysis.

Methods: To determine whether mutations in HOXA2 or SIX2 cause sporadic microtia, DNA sequencing analysis was performed on exons in both genes in 8 patients of Hispanic and African descent in the Bronx. Identified variants were assayed in an additional 4 patients VX-809 nmr and 100 Hispanic control samples using Sequenom MassArray to rule out causality in heterozygous patients.

Results: No mutations were identified in the coding sequence of HOXA2 or SIX2. Four novel single nucleotide variants were identified among the patient samples. These variants lie in the intron and 3′ UTR of HOXA2 and the 5′ and 3′ UTRs of SIX2. One variant in the intron of HOXA2 lies in a conserved predicted transcription factor binding site for SMARCA3. All four variants are also present at >5% frequency in Hispanic control samples, ruling out these novel variations as causal.

Conclusions: Lack of mutations in the coding regions of HOXA2 or SIX2 among the sporadic microtia patients studied indicate different etiologies.

During the BOT, mean stump pressure (MSTP) of the ICA was monitor

During the BOT, mean stump pressure (MSTP) of the ICA was monitored. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography at rest and during BOT. rCBF was determined using 3-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template (3DSRT) which automatically divided CBF into 12 segments. We defined hypoperfusion segment as BOT/rest ratio <0.9 or AI <0.9. Results: When the BOT/rest ratio was used as a hypoperfusion parameter, the number of hypoperfusion Lazertinib inhibitor segments was significantly greater in patients with an MSTP <= 50 mm Hg than in patients with an MSTP >50mm Hg. However, only

AI during BI 6727 BOT did not reflect MSTP significantly. Conclusions: The evaluation of CBF changes in BOT using 3DSRT and the BOT/rest ratio were useful because of objective comparison.”
“In adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls, postural imbalance is attributed to a sensory rearrangement of the motor system on the representation of the body in space. The objectives of this study were to test if the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) and resultant

body-head and trunk center of mass (COM) horizontal offsets were similar in able-bodied and scoliotic girls and if these offsets were related to the center of pressure displacements. A total of 21 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis girls and 20 able-bodied girls participated in this study. Their body COM position and that of the head and trunk were estimated according to Damavandi et al. (Med Eng Phys 31:1187-1194, 2009). The COP range and speed in both AP and ML axes were calculated from force plate

measurements in quiet standing. The AP offset of the able-bodied group was anterior to the body COM by 11.0 +/- A 15.9 mm, while that of the scoliotic group was posterior to it by -17.3 +/- A 11.2 mm. The able-bodied OSI-744 supplier group maintained their head-trunk segment COM more to the right by 14.1 +/- A 13.1 mm, while that of the scoliotic group was nearly over their body centerline. The scoliotic girls presented higher values for COP range and COP speed than the able-bodied girls. The resultant COM offset was correlated with both the ML COP range and speed only for the scoliotic girls. The small ML COM offset in the scoliotic girls was attributed to a compensatory action of the spinal deformity in the frontal plane resulting in a backward resultant COM offset to regain postural balance concomitant to an increase in the ML neuromuscular demand.”
“Introduction: Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output (CO) using bioreactance signals (NICOM) was recently validated in swine and human adults. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that NICOM flow measurements can accurately measure CO and detect acute drug-induced changes in aortic blood flow (AoQ)>= 10% in beagles.

1 mm; for VLBW newborns, 3 6 and for ELBW newborns 2 9 (p

1 mm; for VLBW newborns, 3.6 and for ELBW newborns 2.9 (p

< 0.01); differences that were statistically significant.

Conclusions: In low birth weight newborns, the diameter and depth of the RIJV is directly proportional to the weight of the subjects studied.”
“Gynaecological malignancies are most often diagnosed and staged by surgery. With the expanding evidence of efficacy and benefit of neoadjuvant this website treatments, such tumor confirmation and assessment should be ideally done with the least associated morbidity. Thus sentinel node biopsy has already been proposed for selected indications so that the morbidity associated with formal lymphadenectomy could be avoided in those patients without nodal metastases. The era of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (N.O.T.E.S.) heralds an operative methodology of ‘least

invasiveness’ that could be useful in gynaecological cancer. In this article, we present an overview of the staging of gynaecological malignancies with a focus on the potential applications and benefits that N.O.T.E.S. may provide in this field. In particular, we believe that performing sentinel lymph node dissection with N.O.T.E.S. could associate the low morbidity rate of the former technique with the minimal invasiveness of the tatter one and therefore consolidate the potential of this technique. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights GSK2879552 datasheet reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are used in tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys to identify participants for bacteriological examination. Expert readers are rare in most African countries. In our survey, clinical officers scored CXRs of 19216 participants once. We assessed to what extent missed CXR abnormalities affected our TB prevalence estimate.

METHODS: Two experts, a radiologist and pulmonologist, independently reviewed 1031 randomly selected CXRs, mixed with films of confirmed TB cases. CXRs with disagreement on ‘any abnormality’ or ‘abnormality consistent with TB’ were jointly reviewed during a consensus panel. We compared

the final expert and clinical officer classifications with bacteriologically confirmed TB as the gold standard.

RESULTS: After the panel, 199 (19%) randomly selected CXRs were considered abnormal by both expert reviewers and another 82 (8%) by one reviewer. Agreement was good among the experts (kappa 0.78, 95%CI 0.73-0.82) and moderate between the clinical officers and experts (kappa range 0.50-0.62). The sensitivity of ‘any abnormality’ was 95% for the clinical officers and 83% and 81% for the respective experts. The specificities were respectively 73%, 74% and 80%. TB prevalence was underestimated by 1.5-5.0%.

CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable CXR screening can be achieved with clinical officers. Reviewing a sample of CXRs by two experts allows an assessment of prevalence underestimation.

The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosme

The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. Cl 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.”
“The Tigecycline Evaluation LY2835219 and Surveillance Trial is a global surveillance study monitoring the efficacy of tigecycline and comparators against clinically important pathogens. Between 2004 and 2010, 3126 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from 66 centers in 13 countries in Latin America; of these, 1467 (46.9%) were resistant to methicillin. The main contributors

of S. aureus isolates were Mexico (n = 846), Argentina (n = 740), and Colombia (n = 445). The methicillin-resistant S. aureus rate was greater than 50% in five countries, the highest reported in Puerto Rico (73.9%). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus rates across Latin America ranged from 40.1% to 50.6% over the study period. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible

to linezolid and vancomycin, while 100% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and 99.8% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were highly susceptible to minocycline (99.2% and 97.0%, respectively). Latin American methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were highly susceptible to levofloxacin (94.6%) while only Blebbistatin purchase 16.2% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus were levofloxacin-susceptible. This study shows that linezolid, vancomycin, and tigecycline are all highly active against S. aureus from Latin America, regardless of methicillin resistance. (C) this website 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Fixed drug eruption (FDE) usually presents as a single oval to round violaceous patch after administration of the causative drug. We describe a case of FDE presenting with multiple annular erythematous lesions over dorsal

aspects of both feet following the administration of phenobarbital. To the best of our knowledge, such an atypical demonstration had never been reported. Fixed drug eruption should be considered in the differential diagnosis of annular lesions.”
“Background: Sepsis is a systemic inflammation associated with infection caused by pathogenic micro-organisms with high mortality rates.

Objective: In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Propionibacterium acnes-killed against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture.

Methods: The mice were treated by intramuscular route in 1, 3, 5, and 7 days before the cecal ligation and puncture induction. The control group animals received vehicle (saline solution 0.9%) and the animals of the treated group received the P. acnes-killed (0.4 mg/animal). After anesthesia, midline laparotomy was performed with exposure of cecum followed by ligature and one transverse perforation of the same, with a 18 G needle, for induction of lethal sepsis.

Design-Prevalence study

Animals-63 alpaca herds with

Design-Prevalence study.

Animals-63 alpaca herds with >= 12 registered female


Procedures-250 Cilengitide alpaca breeders were randomly selected from 562 eligible herds listed in the Alpaca Owner and Breeders Association membership directory and mailed a voluntary participation request. Sixty-three alpaca breeders participated in the study. From each herd, blood samples from >= 4 crias were tested for BVDV, BVDV RNA, and serum neutralizing antibodies against BVDV A region of the genome of BVDV recovered from PI crias was sequenced to determine genetic homology.

Results-Among the 63 herds, 16 (25.4%) had seropositive crias and 4 (6.3%) had PI crias. Infections in 3 of the 4 herds with PI crias were linked as evidence by the genetic homologies of viruses. In addition to PI crias, feeding supplemental colostrum was associated with herd seropositivity.


selleckchem and Clinical Relevance-Results confirmed the importance of BVDV infections in alpacas in the United States and highlighted the importance of determining the BVDV infection status of animals before they are commingled to limit exposure of herds to BVDV infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234:519-529)”
“Chemical investigations of the soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum, has led to the isolation of six cembranoids, two of which are new, Trochelioid A (1) and B (2), and one, 16-oxosarcophytonin E (3) isolated from nature for the first time. Additionally, two have been isolated from S. trocheliophorum for the first time (4 and 6). Structures were elucidated by employing extensive NMR and HR-FAB-MS

experimentation. (C) 2013 Ruboxistaurin supplier Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Under appropriate conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Penicillium chrysogenum were found to co-immobilize spontaneously with no need for external support or chemical binder. The main aims were to examine the interaction between yeast cells and fungal hyphae by electron microscopy and the death of the filamentous fungus because of direct contact between both microorganisms.

RESULTS: Immobilization was accomplished by orbitally shaking at 28 degrees C a culture medium consisting of yeast nitrogen base buffered at pH 7 and containing gluconic acid as an available carbon source for the filamentous fungus not readily used by the yeast. The yeast biocapsules thus obtained were hollow, smooth, elastic, strong, creamy-coloured spheres of variable size depending on the particular shaking rate and time of residence in the formation medium.

Distinct rectifying current-voltage characteristics are observed

Distinct rectifying current-voltage characteristics are observed for junctions between Zn-Co-O and n-type InGaZnO films, exhibiting a threshold voltage of similar to 2.5 V. P-type Zn-Co-O appears promising for thin-film electronic

device technology. AZD6094 molecular weight (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3415543]“
“Background: Biomarkers of iodine status are required to study iodine deficiency disorders in different parts of the world and to evaluate the effects of fortification strategies.

Objective: The objective was to assess the usefulness of biomarkers of iodine status in humans by systematically reviewing intervention studies that altered iodine status.

Design: We performed a structured search for iodine intervention studies on Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE (Ovid), and the Cochrane Library. Studies

were assessed for inclusion and validity, with independent duplication. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results: Twenty-one intervention studies (12 randomized controlled trials, 3 controlled clinical trials, and 6 before-after studies) were included in the review. Urinary iodine (in children and adolescents and in those with low and moderate baseline iodine status), thyroglobulin (in children and adolescents but not in pregnant and lactating women), SRT2104 order serum thyroxine (in children and adolescents, adults, women, and those with moderate baseline thyroxine status but not in pregnant and lactating women), and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (in pregnant and lactating women but not in children and adolescents or those at moderate baseline status), but not triiodothyronine, proved to be useful biomarkers of iodine status.

Conclusions: Despite the high risk of bias of many of the included studies, the results suggested that urinary iodine, thyroglobin, serum thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone are useful biomarkers of iodine status, at least in some

groups. High-quality controlled studies measuring relevant long-term outcomes are needed to address which biomarker is the most appropriate for assessing iodine intake in some population groups and settings. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(suppl): 2052S-69S.”
“Arabidopsis thaliana was thought to contain PXD101 in vivo two spermine synthase genes, ACAULIS 5 (ACLS) and SPMS. Recent investigations, however, revealed that the ACL5 gene encodes thermospermine synthase. In this study, we have established a simple method to separate two isomers of tetraamine, spermine and thermospermine, in extracts from plant tissues of less than 500 mg. Polyamines (PAs) extracted from plant tissues were benzoylated, and the derivatives were completely resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C(18) reverse-phase column, by eluting with 42% (v/v) acetonitrile in water in an isocratic manner at 30 degrees C and monitoring at 254 nm.

Kanzi had less O(2) anoxia at CA storage compared with Braeburn “

Kanzi had less O(2) anoxia at CA storage compared with Braeburn.”
“We apply luminescence imaging as tool for the nondestructive visualization of degradation processes within bulk

heterojunction polymer solar cells. The imaging technique is based on luminescence detection with a highly sensitive silicon charge-coupled-device Salubrinal ic50 camera and is able to visualize with time advancing degradation patterns of polymer solar cells. The devices investigated have been aged under defined conditions and were characterized periodically with current-voltage (I-V) sweeps. This allows determining the time evolution of the photovoltaic parameters and-in combination with the luminescence images-understanding differences in the observed degradation behavior. The versatile usability of the method is demonstrated in a correlation between local reduction of lateral luminescence and a fast decrease of the short-circuit current (I(sc)) due to the loss of active area. Differences in the degradation of photovoltaic parameters under varied aging conditions are discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3553864]“
“We describe

the presumably first intentional ABO-incompatible deceaseddonor kidney and pancreas transplantation with a severe antibody-mediated rejection during a rebound of isoagglutinins. Rejection was successfully treated with eculizumab, which inhibits the terminal pathway of complement. Complement CX-6258 concentration analysis (C3, C3d, g, and a modified assay of classical complement-related hemolytic function) documented complement

activation and confirmed that eculizumab completely blocked complement function. At 6 months, the patient had normal kidney and pancreas function, and histological evaluations revealed no evidence of sustained graft damage. This successful transplantation suggests that ABO barriers can safely be overcome without extensive preconditioning, when the complement inhibitor eculizumab is included.”
“Surface passivation has become an essential factor for translating high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cell concepts into industrial MLN8237 solubility dmso production schemes. In photovoltaics, a widespread method to determine the surface recombination is to measure the effective charge carrier lifetime from the photoconductance of symmetrically passivated silicon wafers in transient or quasi-static mode. In this work, it is shown how the injection history at the surface influences the transient effective lifetime measurement for several passivation layers. This dependence leads to systematic differences between quasi-static and transient measurements. The influence can be explained by charge trapping in slow surface states at the surface passivation layer.

RESULTS: Batch experiments were initially conducted to investigat

RESULTS: Batch experiments were initially conducted to investigate total phenols’ adsorption capacity on activated sludge (AS), olive pomace (OP) and powdered activated carbon (PAC).

According to the results, PAC presented the best adsorption capacity. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were also operated, treating municipal wastewater and different amounts of OMW. The first SBR contained AS (AS-System), the second AS andOP (AS-OP System) and the third AS and PAC (AS-PAC System). All SBRs operated sufficiently in the presence of 1% v/v OMW, achievingmean COD and total phenols removal efficiency higher than 86% and 85%, respectively, and satisfactory settling capacity. Increase of OMW concentration to 5% v/v affected the performance of SBRs, resulting in mean COD removal efficiencies that ranged between 61% (AS-OP System) Proteasome inhibitor XMU-MP-1 and 80% (AS-PAC System).

CONCLUSION: Among the SBRs used, the AS-PAC System operated

with highest performance in the presence of 1 and 2.5% v/v OMW, and showed better stability in the presence of 5% v/v OMW. Calculation of total phenols mass flux revealed that biodegradation was the principal mechanism of their removal. The highest values of mean biotransformation rates were calculated for the AS-PAC System and ranged between 2.0 and 40.6 d-1 for different experimental phases. (C) 2012 Ubiquitin inhibitor Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To translate the individual abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patient’s biomechanical rupture risk profile

to risk-equivalent diameters, and to retrospectively test their predictability in ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms.

Methods: Biomechanical parameters of ruptured and non-ruptured AAAs were retrospectively evaluated in a multicenter study. General patient data and high resolution computer tomography angiography (CTA) images from 203 non-ruptured and 40 ruptured aneurysmal infrarenal aortas. Three-dimensional AAA geometries were semi-automatically derived from CTA images. Finite element (FE) models were used to predict peak wall stress (PWS) and peak wall rupture index (PWRI) according to the individual anatomy, gender, blood pressure, intraluminal thrombus (ILT) morphology, and relative aneurysm expansion. Average PWS diameter and PWRI diameter responses were evaluated, which allowed for the PWS equivalent and PWRI equivalent diameters for any individual aneurysm to be defined.

Results: PWS increased linearly and PWRI exponentially with respect to maximum AAA diameter. A size-adjusted analysis showed that PWS equivalent and PWRI equivalent diameters were increased by 7.5 mm (p = .013) and 14.0 mm (p < .001) in ruptured cases when compared to non-ruptured controls, respectively.