In addition, this study opens perspectives for the search for dru

In addition, this study opens perspectives for the search for drugs that influence these processes and that could have therapeutic potential for the treatment of ALS. “
“Audiotactile integration has been studied using various experimental setups but so far crossmodal congruency effects (CCEs) have not been found for tactile targets paired with auditory distractors. In the present study we investigated AZD6244 whether audiotactile CCEs exist and, if so, whether these CCEs have similar characteristics

to those found by previous authors with visual distractors. We measured audiotactile CCEs by attaching four vibrators to the backs of participants and presented auditory stimuli from four loudspeakers placed, in separate blocks, at different distances in front of or behind the participant’s body. Participants discriminated the elevation of tactile stimuli while

ignoring the auditory distractors. CCEs were found only when participants were provided with noninformative vision of their own body, as seen from behind via a camera and head-mounted display; they were absent when participants NVP-LDE225 clinical trial did not view their body. Furthermore, in contrast to visuotactile CCEs, audiotactile CCEs did not depend on whether the distractors were presented on the same or different side as the tactile targets. The present study provides the first demonstration of an audiotactile CCE: incongruent auditory distractors impaired performance Adenosine triphosphate on a tactile elevation discrimination task relative to performance with congruent distractors. We show that audiotactile CCEs differ from visuotactile CCEs as they do not appear to be as sensitive to the spatial relations between the distractors and the tactile stimuli. We also show that these CCEs are modulated by vision of the body. “
“In the published paper

of Girardet et al. (2010), the graphs comparing the mean synaptic innervation of VIP dendrites by GABAergic terminals (GABA+) and non-GABAergic terminals (GABA−) have been inverted (Fig. 4E). The correct data were those that had been described in the text (no day-night variations vs 62% increase in the respective synaptic density of GABAergic terminals and non-GABAergic terminals. The authors apologize for this error. “
“Cover Illustration: Photomicrographs of embryonic zebrafish (20, 22, and 25 hours post fertilization) highlight the rapid development of this organism. During this time, the locomotor apparatus of the embryo is becoming functional. Zebrafish embryos exposed to nicotine exhibit a robust motor output which is mediated by activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In general, neuronal nAChRs are comprised of α and β subunits. For details, see the article of Menelaou et al. (Activation of α2A-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediates nicotine-induced motor output in embryonic zebrafish. Eur. J. Neurosci., 40, 2225–2240).

Additionally, we do not have information about the reasons for la

Additionally, we do not have information about the reasons for late presentation or delayed initiation of HAART – for some individuals, their HIV diagnosis may have been delayed despite presenting for care within other medical services – and have no indication whether treatment delays were a consequence of patient- or clinician-led decisions, or as a consequence of unexpected CD4 decline. Other factors that may influence outcomes, such

as adherence, presence of symptoms (HIV- and non-HIV-related) and immune activation, are potentially important but not collected by UK CHIC so we cannot exclude them as confounders. In particular, while the CD4 cell count slope is of potential importance when analysing immune recovery on HAART, the short duration of pre-HAART follow-up in late presenters (median 0.1 years) would mean that most patients have insufficient numbers of CD4 cell count results Vemurafenib cell line available to permit a calculation of the slope. Finally, although SB431542 purchase it can be argued that CD4 percentage may be a more robust marker of immune status than the absolute CD4 cell count, most treatment guidelines

are based on the absolute CD4 cell count, and so we have used this parameter in our analysis. A previous analysis of our cohort showed absolute CD4 cell count to be a more robust predictor of clinical events than CD4 percentage [19]. Our results demonstrate that, once successful HAART is established, treatment of late presenters and starters is similarly successful as in ideal starters. Although reassuring, these findings do not challenge current treatment recommendations because of the possibility of confounding, relatively short follow-up, exclusion of subjects with poor early outcome (within the first 3 months of HAART) and lack of consideration of other endpoints pertinent to guidelines (such as toxicity and resistance development). In summary, the difference in

48-week treatment outcomes between late presenters and late starters suggests that factors other than CD4 cell count alone may be driving Thiamet G adverse outcomes on HAART. Importantly, although late presenters demonstrated some inferior treatment outcomes to late starters and ideal starters during the first year of HAART, by year 2, differences in virological, immunological and clinical outcomes among the three groups were smaller. These findings suggest that, after 1 year of successful HAART, late presenters and late starters may eventually expect similar treatment outcomes to those who start HAART in accordance with current guidelines. Longer term follow-up is required to explore whether these small differences are further reduced with time on HAART. The UK CHIC Study is funded by the Medical Research Council, UK (grants G0000199 and G0600337).

9%) cutaneous syndrome, 253 (85%) eosinophilic syndrome, and 223

9%) cutaneous syndrome, 253 (8.5%) eosinophilic syndrome, and 223 (7.5%) respiratory syndrome. The remaining 25% had other syndromes which have not been analyzed in this study, such as cardiovascular syndrome or osteoarticular syndrome. The major

presenting clinical syndromes depending on the geographic area of travel are shown in Table 2. Concerning final diagnoses, the most relevant in order of decreasing frequency were: 384 intestinal parasitoses (Giardia intestinalis 127, Entamoeba histolytica 67, Taenia saginata 28, Ascaris lumbricoides 15), 285 Obeticholic Acid ic50 malaria (Plasmodium falciparum alone or mixed 166 and non-P. falciparum malaria 119), 102 other ectoparasites (Sarcoptes scabiei 50, Tunga penetrans 30, myasis 24, Pediculus sp. 4), and 50 filariases (Loa loa 26, Onchocerca volvulus 17, Mansonella perstans 13, Dirofilaria sp. 1, and Wuchereria bancrofti 1). Main diagnostic groups according to the presenting clinical syndrome are shown in Table 3. The most frequent etiologic diagnoses responsible for selleck compound the different clinical syndromes are listed below: febrile syndrome—P. falciparum

malaria (single and mixed infections) 153 (14.9%), traveler’s diarrhea 256 (24.9%), non-P. falciparum malaria 111 (10.8%), rickettsiosis 41 (4%), and dengue 40 (3.9%); diarrheal syndrome—diarrhea of unknown etiology 652 (74.8%), G. intestinalis 83 (9.5%), bacterial diarrhea 73 (8.5%) (Shigella sp. 28, Salmonella sp. 20, Campylobacter sp. 8), E. histolytica 48 (5.5%), and malaria 34 (3.9%); cutaneous syndrome—cutaneous larva migrans 69 (10.1%), scabies 49 (7.2%), superficial fungal infection 40 (5.8%), dengue fever 39 (5.7%), and spotted fever 32 (4.7%); eosinophilic syndrome—schistosomiasis 33 (13%) (Schistosoma haematobium 17), L. loa 21 (8.3%), O. volvulus 14 (5.5%), M. perstans 11 (4.3%), and cutaneous larva migrans 8 (3.2%); bacterial respiratory infection 32 (14.3%) (Mycoplasma pneumoniae 17, Chlamydia pneumoniae 5, Legionella pneumophila 5, Bordetella sp. 1, pneumonia with response to antibiotics 4); malaria 20 (9%); intestinal helminthiasis 13 (5.8%); and schistosomiasis 10 (4.5%). Uncommon diagnoses were tuberculosis

(6), gnathostomiasis (5), toxoplasmosis (4), brucellosis (3), cystic echinococcosis (2), toxocariasis (2), leprosy (1), and visceral leishmaniasis (1). Main diagnostic groups according Methane monooxygenase to the geographical area of travel are shown in Table 4. When analyzing clinical syndromes of consultation and diagnostic groups by geographical area of travel, we found that in travelers to Caribbean–Central America, Indian subcontinent–Southeast Asia, and other areas, the three major presenting clinical syndromes, in order of frequency, were diarrheal syndrome, febrile syndrome, and cutaneous syndrome (p < 0.05). In travelers to sub-Saharan Africa the main syndromes were febrile syndrome, cutaneous syndrome, and diarrheal syndrome (p < 0.05).

The main limitation of this study is that it was designed

The main limitation of this study is that it was designed primarily

to assess drug toxicity, not efficacy. It therefore included no specific procedures for assessing compliance with treatment, follow-up post-ATV interruption or therapeutic drug monitoring in the patients not taking RTV. Different patterns of mutations have been described in patients failing boosted vs. unboosted ATV-containing regimens [20]. This could not be assessed in this cohort as data are not available on resistance tests performed in treatment-failing patients. It is nevertheless useful to describe the problems emerging during ‘real-life’ treatment of HIV-infected patients. Our results suggest that, in an unselected clinical setting, ATV-containing antiretroviral therapy has a lasting effect and is safe in both formulations; efficacy was still seen when unboosted ATV was given together with TDF. This is a worthwhile finding as it confirms that ATV-containing regimens can be used safely, permitting RTV sparing, in patients already intolerant to the booster. The Coordinamento Italiano Studio Allergie e Infezione

da HIV (CISAI) comprises the following members. Co-ordination: T. Quirino, P. Bonfanti and E. Ricci. Recruitment sites and investigators: C. Abeli and B. Menzaghi (Busto Arsizio); C. Grosso and A. Stagno (Cesena); A. Cappelletti and D. Santoro (Como); ATPase inhibitor S. Carradori and F. Ghinelli (Ferrara); F. Vichi and F. Mazzotta (Firenze, S. Maria Annunziata); C. Martinelli, R. Giustini and F. Leoncini (Firenze, Careggi); G. Penco and G. Cassola (Genova); S. Miccolis and A. Scalzini (Mantova); S.

Landonio, S. Melzi and G. Rizzardini (I Divisione, Ospedale Sacco, Milano); L. Valsecchi and L. Cordier (II Divisione, Ospedale Sacco, Milano); S. Rusconi and M. Galli (Clinica Malattie Infettive, Ospedale Sacco, Milano); E. Rosella and G. Fioni (Milano); M. Franzetti (Padova); C. Sfara, G.V. De Socio and G. Stagni (Perugia); G. Parruti (Pescara); B. Adriani and A. Paladini (Prato); G. Madeddu and M. S. Mura (Sassari); P. Marconi and A. Antinori (Roma); G. Orofino and P. Caramello (Torino); G. Cristina and F. Carcò (Vercelli); D. Migliorini and O. Armignacco (Viterbo). Montelukast Sodium This study was supported by an ISS grant (Project no. 30G.60) from the Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy. “
“The extent to which clinical progression of HIV-positive patients leads to an increase in health care utilization, especially prior to their death, is unknown. Thus, we modelled trends in CD4 cell count and emergency department utilization and the likelihood of an emergency department visit leading to a transfer to an acute care-level facility prior to a patient’s death from nonaccidental causes.

Our results indicate

that L fermentum NTD are distribute

Our results indicate

that L. fermentum NTD are distributed not only in the cytoplasm but also on the cell wall surface, and further studies showed that surface-attached NTD can be released into the culture broth and conventional buffers. Lactobacilli can be divided into two groups depending on whether or not they require deoxyribonucleosides for growth (Kaminski, 2002). Most lactobacilli that utilize the salvage pathway degrade exogenous nucleosides to the nucleobase and pentose sugar via a nucleoside phosphorylase. Others possess a special salvage system based on a nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase and require a deoxynucleoside in combination with purine and pyrimidine bases for their DNA synthesis (Kilstrup

et al., 2005). N-deoxyribosyltransferases (EC, also called trans-N-deoxyribosylases, catalyze the transfer of a 2′-deoxyribosyl group from DNA Damage inhibitor a donor deoxynucleoside to an acceptor nucleobase (Anand et al., 2004). This enzyme was initially described for lactobacilli and has also been found in certain species of Streptococcus (Chawdhri et al., 1991) and in some protozoans such as Crithidia luciliae (Steenkamp, 1991). Two types of N-deoxyribosyltransferase have been described in lactobacilli: type I is purine deoxyribosyltransferase (PTD), specific for the transfer of deoxyribose between two purines; type II is nucleoside 2′-deoxyribosyltransferase (NTD), which catalyzes the transfer of deoxyribose between either purines

or pyrimidines (Holguin & Cardinaud, 1975; Miyamoto et al., 2007). Several dozen reports on lactobacilli N-deoxyribosyltransferase have been RAS p21 protein activator 1 published since the initial study by Macnutt (Macnutt, 1950). The three-dimensional structure of these enzymes has been solved, and their kinetic mechanisms as well as their catalytic and substrate binding sites have been well characterized (Armstrong et al., 1996; Anand et al., 2004). The transfer reactions, catalyzed by either PTD or NTD, proceed following a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism by formation of a covalent deoxyribosyl enzyme intermediate (Danzin & Cardinau, 1974; Danzin & Cardinaud, 1976). As NTD has broader substrate specificity than PTD, it has attracted more attention. NTD also has a hydrolase function such that, in the absence of an acceptor base, the nucleoside is converted to its base and deoxyribose (Smar et al., 1991). Most antiviral or anticancer drugs are analogues of naturally occurring nucleosides. The use of purified enzyme or intact bacterial cells containing NTD enables a one-pot transglycosylation reaction at high yields, providing an interesting alternative to traditional multistep chemical methods (Fernandez-Lucas et al., 2010). Stereospecific reactions and high tolerance for various modifications in the bases also make NTD ideally suited to serve as biocatalyst for the production of nucleosides and nucleoside analogues (Okuyama et al.

The mcf gene encodes a toxin that has been shown to destroy insec

The mcf gene encodes a toxin that has been shown to destroy insect phagocytes and to cause disintegration of the insect midgut via apoptosis, producing

the characteristic ‘floppy’ phenotype of Photorhabdus-infected insects (Waterfield et al., 2003). The Kingscliff genome is syntenic with the US isolate across regions containing the tca, tcb and tcd pathogenicity islands that encode high-molecular-weight, multisubunit orally insecticidal toxins (see Figs S3, S4 and S5). The Tc toxins aid in the killing and bioconversion of the insect host by destroying the insect midgut and rendering the host incapable of further feeding (Forst & Nealson, 1996). Other toxins that are found in both the US and Australian isolates are the pirAB insecticidal binary VE 821 Caspase inhibitor toxin (Fig.

S6); which has been shown to have larvicidal activity (Waterfield et al., 2005; Ahantarig et al., 2009). In addition, the Kingscliff strain also contains the PVC cassettes (see Fig. S7) that consist of phage-like elements encoding a structure similar to an R-type pyocin (Yang et al., 2006). These PVC cassettes contain a number of phage-like ORFs that produce the structural part of the PVC and then one or more ORFs encoding putative toxins. Interestingly, the Kingscliff strain appears to lack the PVC pnf, which is present in the US isolate and has been associated with the destruction of insect blood cells (Yang et al., 2006). It has been speculated that the PVCs act like a syringe to deliver the encoded effector molecules to their target cells. The Kingscliff strain also contains the Type Three Secretion Systems (TTSSs) TTSS-1 and TTSS-2 (see Figs S8 and S9) described previously in the ATCC43949 strain (Wilkinson et al., 2009). The TTSS-2 secretion system is similar to one found in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and may be involved in human pathogenicity and intracellular (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate invasion. Figure 2 displays two example regions of difference between the P. asymbiotica ATCC43949 and

the P. asymbiotica Kingscliff strains. Figure 2a shows a polyketide synthase operon (encoding proteins that are similar to those required for gramicidin2 synthesis) that is present in P. asymbiotica ATCC43949 and absent from the corresponding region in P. asymbiotica Kingscliff. An interesting feature is the presence of phage proteins and transposases flanking the PKS genes. These transposable elements provide a potential mechanism for the horizontal transfer of genes between the two genomes. Conversely, the genomic region displayed in Fig. 2b shows a number of genes present in P. asymbiotica Kingscliff that are missing from same region in the ATCC43949 genome. One of these genes is tccZ, a gene of unknown function that is tightly linked to the insecticidal tcc-toxin loci.

resistens in its natural habitat, probably the histidine-rich ing

resistens in its natural habitat, probably the histidine-rich inguinal and perineal areas of the human body. The ability of C. resistens to utilize l-histidine as a sole source of nitrogen was demonstrated by growth assays

in synthetic minimal media. Reverse transcriptase PCRs revealed enhanced transcript levels of the hut genes in C. resistens cells grown in the presence of l-histidine. Promoter-probe assays showed that the hut genes are organized in three transcription units: hutHUI,hutR, and hutG. The respective transcriptional start sites were mapped by 5′ RACE-PCR to detected putative promoter regions. DNA band shift assays with purified HutR protein identified Talazoparib order the 14-bp DNA sequence TCTGwwATwCCAGA located upstream of the mapped promoters. This GSK J4 supplier DNA motif includes a 4-bp terminal palindrome, which turned out

to be essential for HutR binding in vitro. These data add a new physiological function to the large IclR family of transcriptional regulators. Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents (Otsuka et al., 2005). Corynebacterium resistens DSM 45100 represents the type strain of this species and was isolated from blood cultures of specimens taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. Very recently, the complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 has been determined to delineate the putative lifestyle of this opportunistic pathogen on the human body (Schröder et al., 2012). In this context, a histidine utilization (hut) pathway was annotated, which is encoded by the hut gene cluster comprising the hutH, hutU, hutI, and hutG genes as well as the regulatory gene

hutR (Fig. 1). The protein products of orthologous genes catalyze Teicoplanin the four-step conversion of l-histidine to l-glutamate (Coote & Hassall, 1973). The presence of this pathway in C. resistens is remarkable, as this species probably colonizes the fatty and histidine-rich inguinal and perineal regions of the human body and thus lives in close proximity to the female genital tract (Schröder et al., 2012). Variable amounts of l-histidine are also present in the vaginal fluid (Dusitsin et al., 1967) and might be used by C. resistens as a combined nitrogen and carbon source, thereby compensating for the restricted catabolism of carbohydrates owing to the lipophilic lifestyle (Schröder et al., 2012). A comparative analysis of hut gene regions in the genus Corynebacterium revealed the presence of the respective cluster in few pathogenic species, although with different genetic organizations (Schröder et al., 2012). All corynebacterial hut gene clusters contain the hutR gene, encoding a transcriptional regulator of the IclR superfamily that is probably involved in the control of the histidine utilization genes. Members of the widely distributed IclR protein family can function as activators and/or repressors (Molina-Henares et al., 2006).

6) MlrA binds a 33-bp-long palindromic sequence (see Fig 3), wh

6). MlrA binds a 33-bp-long palindromic sequence (see Fig. 3), which is much longer than the hitherto identified binding sequences by E. coli transcription factors (Ishihama, 2010) and probably induces

DNA underwinding as in the case of MerR. DNA curvature induced by MlrA should influence not only the activity of neighbouring DNA such as binding affinity to positive factors, IHF, OmpR and RstA, Selleck 17-AAG and/or to negative fractors, H-NS and CpxR, but also the mode of the molecular interplay between csgD promoter-bound transcription factors. The metal response regulator MerR interacts and binds heavy metals using its C-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain MlrA, however, exhibits little similarity to the MerR family regulators, indicating that MlrA interacts with an as yet

unidentified effector using the C-terminal domain. Identification of the putative effector affecting MlrA activity is also important for detailed understanding of the regulatory role of MlrA in activation of the csgD promoter. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Area System Cell Engineering by Multi-Scale Manipulation (17076016) to A.I., Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (21241047) and (B) (18310133) to A.I., and Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (218850) to H.O. from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. We also acknowledge the support from Project of Micro-Nano Technology Research Center Sirolimus supplier of Hosei University. H.O. is a recipient of a JSPS Post-doctoral Fellowship. Table S1.Escherichia coli strains used. Table S2. Primers used. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the

authors. Any queries (other than missing material) Galactosylceramidase should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Isothermal calorimetry measures the heat flow of biological processes, which is proportional to the rate at which a given chemical or physical process takes place. Modern isothermal microcalorimeters make measurements of less than a microwatt of heat flow possible. As a result, as few as 10 000–100 000 active bacterial cells in culture are sufficient to produce a real-time signal dynamically related to the number of cells present and their activity. Specimens containing bacteria need little preparation, and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) is a nondestructive method. After IMC measurements, the undisturbed samples can be evaluated by any other means desired. In this review, we present a basic description of microcalorimetry and examples of microbiological applications of IMC for medical and environmental microbiology. In both fields, IMC has been used to quantify microbial activity over periods of hours or even days.

Notifications are collected at the Statens Serum Institut All pa

Notifications are collected at the Statens Serum Institut. All patients with TB in Denmark are treated in hospitals specialized in the treatment of TB. It was therefore possible to obtain information about all known TB cases

in Denmark during 2007–2009. Data were not available to allow us to examine the reasons for choosing to perform or not perform an HIV test. However, the existing data suggest that testing for HIV infection was carried out in patients selected by age and to some extent by perceived risk of HIV infection. This seems to be a universal practice among health care personnel [4]. The number of patients found to be HIV infected was nearly the same in each of these three years, although the proportion and

number of patients who were tested learn more for HIV infection increased significantly. A recent European Union survey found selleck inhibitor that between 5 and 90% of patients newly diagnosed with TB were tested for HIV [5]. The significant increase in HIV testing among new TB cases might partly be a result of increased awareness among relevant health care personnel as a consequence of our survey. The incidence of TB in Denmark is now 7/100 000/year, but variable within population subgroups. The prevalence of HIV infection is estimated to be 7/10 000 [6]. It is likely that the frequency of HIV infection was higher among the TB patients who were tested than it would have been in those who were not tested. We cannot expect to test all patients with TB for HIV, because by law the test can only be carried out after informed consent has been obtained from the patient. A few patients will refuse an offer of a test for HIV infection, and in some cases the diagnosis of TB is only forthcoming days or weeks after the patient’s death. The frequency of HIV infection in TB patients in Denmark isometheptene in 2007–2009 was estimated to be around 3%, which is approximately

40 times higher than the estimated prevalence of HIV infection in the general population in Denmark. It therefore seems prudent to adhere to the policy recommended by The National Board of Health of offering HIV testing to all patients newly diagnosed with TB [2]. HIV testing of TB patients in Denmark increased during the study period, from 43% in 2007 to 63% in 2009. The average estimated HIV prevalence among TB patients in Denmark is 3%, which is approximately 40 times higher than the estimated background HIV prevalence in the Danish population. Therefore, the current national strategy with continued focus on HIV testing of the susceptible group of TB patients is duly supported by our findings.

In a different paradigm, Cools et al (2010) also revealed that d

In a different paradigm, Cools et al. (2010) also revealed that dopaminergic medications decreased ‘distractor resistance’ in VX-809 datasheet PD (see also Moustafa et al.,

2008). The results of the present study are consistent with the findings of previous reports that found no severe attentional dysfunction in early-stage PD (e.g. Rafal et al., 1984; Della Sala et al., 1986; Cossa et al., 1989; Lee et al., 1999; Kingstone et al., 2002; Koerts et al., 2009; Cristinzio et al., 2012), and indicate that dopamine agonists do not affect alerting, orienting and executive attention. Other researchers suggested that attentional dysfunction in PD is confined to internal cognitive control mechanisms (Brown & Marsden, 1988; Bennett et al., 1995). However, using the ANT, Zhou et al. (2012) demonstrated a selective deficit of the orienting network, although results also revealed that alerting and executive components might be compromised in a more advanced stage of the disease (see also Allcock et al., 2009; Vandenbossche et al., 2012). Results from animal models and human pharmacological studies suggest that dopamine is specifically related to the executive attentional network (Marrocco & Davidson, 1998). However, Robbins (2002) argued that in animals the systematic administration of dopaminergic agents predominantly affects response latency,

premature responses and omissions via the dorsal and ventral striatal systems. The administration of dopamine agonists in humans also modulates striatal and midbrain responses to reward (Riba et al., 2008; Abler et al., 2009). selleck Our findings are consistent with the response speed hypothesis of systematic dopaminergic effects (Robbins, 2002) because the sole change after the administration of dopamine agonists was shorter mean reaction times. Dopamine agonists had no noticeable effects on the altering, orienting

and executive measures in contrast to attentional boost, which was significantly enhanced. This suggests that the attention indexes, as measured by the ANT, are dissociable from attentional boost. What is the practical relevance of enhanced attentional boost? We found that changes in BIS-11 attentional impulsivity correlated with atypical attentional boost (enhanced memory for distractor-associated scenes). Housden et al. (2010) also reported impulsivity in medicated patients with PD. In the ABT, target stimuli are salient and rewarded, leading to the enhanced encoding of the background scene. Distractors are not rewarded, and therefore there is no enhanced encoding of the background scene. This latter omission of distractor-associated scenes is disinhibited in patients with PD receiving dopaminergic medications, which is in accordance with our previous results from a simple associative learning task (Nagy et al., 2012).