49 The symptoms begin at rest when the person is lying or sitting and are relieved by movement such as walking or stretching. The condition is present in 5% to 10% of the general population. It has been said to be the “most common and least diagnosed” sleep disorder.50 Diagnosis relies essentially on the interview with the physician.51 Restless legs may be caused by polyneu- ropathy, arthritis, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical positional discomfort and ischemia, neuroleptic exposure, or cramps. Objective measures include polysomnography, with EMG electrodes placed at the level
of the anterior tibialis muscles on both legs, and the suggested immobilization test (SIT) to provoke the restless legs symptoms. In the SIT, the patient is required not to move for 1 h while measures of leg movement and movement intensity are monitored. In 80% Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of patients, polysomnography will show periodic limb movements while awake and sensory discomfort may rise during the SIT. Periodic limb movements in sleep are repetitive movements that primarily involve the legs, especially during non-REM sleep. When http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Paclitaxel(Taxol).html patients report sleep-wake complaints, they are said to suffer from
periodic limb movement disorder. Movements Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are counted if they last 0.5 to 5 s and occur in a series of four or more at intervals of 5 to 90 s. The EMG amplitude of the nocturnal limb movements must be 25% or more of the baseline EMG amplitude while awake. The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical severity of the condition is determined by the periodic limb movement index (number of periodic movements per hour of sleep). The periodic limb movement
arousal index is the number of periodic limb movements associated with EEG arousals per hour of sleep. Periodic limb movement disorder is defined as mild (5 to 25 periodic limb movements occur per hour of sleep), moderate (25 to 50 movements per hour of sleep), or severe (more than 50 periodic limb movements per hour of sleep or more than 25 associated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with arousals per hour of sleep). The pathophysiology of periodic movements has been related to iron deficiency, which itself is related to dopaminergic dysfunction, which has led to the recent publication of dopaminergic-centered therapeutic standards,52 dopamine agonists giving positive results. With the exception of anticholinergics, Parkinsonian medications benefit the condition. from Sleep apnea-lypopnea syndromes ani the upper airway resistance syndrome Two clinical entities constitute the essential part of breathing disorders during sleep: sleep apnea-hypopnea syndromes and the upper airway resistance syndrome.53 Obstructive sleep apnea affects up to 4% of middle-aged male adults, but may also affect women. The generally obese heavily snoring male patient stops or reduces (by more than 50%) breathing between 10 s to 1 min. Efforts to breathe arouse the patient, leading to an extremely fragmented sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness.