Studies in the general population show that lifestyle and dietary

Studies in the general population show that lifestyle and dietary measures assist in the management of hypertension. In the general population, regular aerobic activity and weight reduction by as little as 5 kg reduces blood pressure in most people who are greater than 10% above their ideal body weight.34 The recommendation to limit alcohol consumption is based on guidelines for reducing the lifetime risk of harm from drinking, from a chronic disease or through accident or injury In health men and women.1 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative:

No recommendation. UK Renal Association: No recommendation. Canadian Society of Nephrology: No recommendation. European Best Practice Guidelines: Blood RAD001 price pressure control (<130/85 for kidney transplant recipients without proteinuria, <125/75 for proteinuric patients) is mandatory in these patients. General measures and pharmacological intervention are necessary in many cases.35 International

Guidelines: No recommendation. Evaluation is necessary to determine whether or not the guidelines have Carfilzomib an effect on clinical practice and clinical outcomes. Patient blood pressure should be monitored with the goal of achieving <130/85 mmHb (no proteinuria) or <125/75 mmHb (with proteinuria >1 g/day).35,36 Diet histories as well as 24 h urinary sodium should be used to assess dietary sodium intake Protein tyrosine phosphatase and a patient’s compliance to specific dietary sodium recommendations. All the above

authors have no relevant financial affiliations that would cause a conflict of interest according to the conflict of interest statement set down by CARI. These guidelines were developed under a project funded by the Greater Metropolitan Clinical Taskforce, New South Wales. “
“A significant proportion of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients will have abrupt technique failure requiring conversion to haemodialysis, often using temporary vascular catheters as bridging access. However, vascular catheter use has been associated with increased mortality and great effort has been made to reduce their use. Just under two decades ago, a trial of dual arteriovenous fistula (AVF) formation and Tenckhoff catheter insertion reported only 4% of those in whom back-up fistulae were formed ever used them. Patient demographic, surgical technique and fistula care over those decades have changed substantially, potentially making this practice feasible. Thirty-five selected patients at Concord Repatriation and General Hospital had AVF formed at the time of Tenckhoff insertion and were entered prospectively into a vascular access database. We retrospectively examined this database with a median follow up of 345 days (interquartile range 183–658).

More recently, Hanssen et al [16] found that exercise training-i

More recently, Hanssen et al. [16] found that exercise training-induced increases in arteriolar caliber were accompanied by significant decreases in ADMA, suggesting that the NO/ADMA pathway EPZ-6438 clinical trial may play a key role in the beneficial changes

in microvascular structure associated with regular exercise. The effect of obesity on the retinal microcirculation has been well established. Arteriolar caliber narrowing, venular caliber widening and lower AVR have been found to be associated with obesity in both children and adult populations [18,27,28,57,59,60], suggesting that obesity may cause deleterious microvascular changes before clinical signs and symptoms of vascular disease are present. In children, greater BMI was associated with wider retinal venular caliber and narrower arterioles, weight and body surface area were associated with wider retinal venules only, and larger waist circumference was associated with narrower retinal arterioles [52]. In the SCORM [12], greater BMI and weight were associated check details with wider retinal venular caliber. Consistent with this evidence, more recent studies also demonstrated that BMI and triceps skinfold [14,37] were found to be associated with wider retinal venular caliber and narrower retinal

arteriolar caliber in healthy, pre-adolescent children, supporting an early adverse effect of obesity on microvascular crotamiton structure. Although the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and retinal vessel diameter are unclear, several possible explanations exist. Systemic inflammation is thought to contribute to the vascular complications

associated with obesity [7]. Systemic inflammation is also associated with changes in retinal venular caliber [26], and therefore may be the mechanism through which obesity affects retinal microvascular structure. Obesity is also related to increased total blood volume [46], and retinal venular dilatation may be a regulatory response to maintain blood flow. These relationships between obesity and retinal microvascular changes may help explain the association between childhood obesity and complications such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that occur later in life [13]. The Rotterdam Study [18], BDES [26], MESA [60], Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy [28], and BMES [23] have all demonstrated a consistent association between wider retinal vessel caliber and cigarette smoking, suggesting that adverse macrovascular outcomes associated with smoking may be partly mediated by deleterious changes in microvascular health. More recently, the ARIC study has demonstrated a temporal association between past smoking and wider retinal venules, independent of current smoking status [40], indicating that smoking may provoke long-term structural changes in microcirculation.

While classically considered an immunologically privileged site,

While classically considered an immunologically privileged site, we currently know that the CNS is a target of immunosurveillance, even though it contains particularities capable

of modulating the inflammatory process (17,18). Water-soluble substances can flow from the CSF to the brain parenchyma and vice-versa, and solutes entering the brain through the blood–brain barrier (BBB), as well as those synthesized by the brain, diffuse freely from the brain interstitial fluid into the CSF (8). Matrix metalloproteinases are usually 3-deazaneplanocin A solubility dmso not detected, or exist in extremely low concentrations in the CNS under normal conditions, but they are found in higher concentrations in severe neuronal disorders and after injury (19). Furthermore, the MMPs detected in the CSF may have passed through the injured BBB or blood–CSF barrier. In a recent study focused on MMPs Navitoclax purchase in the

serum of dogs with VL, high levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected (20). Interestingly, we found no correlation with the levels of MMPs in serum and in CSF (data not shown), which give evidences that the MMPs in the CSF were not originated from serum, but were generated within the nervous milieu. In fact, in another recent paper from our research group, it was noticed that in the brain of dogs with VL, MMP-2 varied according to the symptoms, and, in a similar manner that occurs in the CSF, elevated amounts of MMP-9 was observed Bay 11-7085 in the infected groups, with no symptoms variation (21). Systemic infections

might result in changes in the selectivity of the BBB or blood–CSF barrier (22), and as a consequence, the CNS may become more susceptible to the entrance of inflammatory cells, pathogens and others substances that are circulating in blood. The neurological symptoms during L. chagasi infection are the result of chronic meningeal inflammation (23). Lima et al (24). detected high titres of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the serum and CSF of dogs with VL and proposed that changes in the permeability of the BBB and/or blood–CSF barrier would permit the entrance of antibodies, antigens and others proteins into the CNS. Matrix metalloproteinases, instead of have entered to the nervous environment by an injured brain barrier, may be, in fact, the causative of that injury (7), thereby permitting the passage of the antibodies and lymphocytes previously described (5,24). An important fact that could have influenced the MMPs detection was the different immunologic status of the dogs, because of different phases of infection. In an attempt to avoid this interference, it was provided a division of the infected dogs into three subgroups according to the symptomatic classification, but no differences in the MMPs levels were detected. It is an important result, as that the detection of MMPs varies with the infection by L. chagasi, and seems not to be influenced by symptoms.

[94-96] The repertoire of CD1d-presented self-antigen is responsi

[94-96] The repertoire of CD1d-presented self-antigen is responsive to an APC activation state. Staining with tetramerized iNKT TCR, and comparison of the repertoire of CD1d-associated

self-GSL in resting and LPS (TLR4)-stimulated myeloid DC, shows that TLR stimulation of DC causes an increase in presentation of iNKT-activating CD1d ligands.[30, 37] Triggering of TLR4 and TLR7 or TLR9 on DC activates iNKT cells, and this activation requires APC synthesis of charged β-linked GSL.[29] In inflammation, Src inhibitor APC levels of lysophosphatidylcholine increase, though lysophosphatidylcholine is only a weak activator of iNKT cells.[41] A more important role is indicated for β-GlcCer. It is synthesized in response to TLR agonists, and inhibition of this synthesis impairs iNKT responses to DC cultured with bacteria. Further, bacterial infection of mice leads to accumulation of β-GlcCer at sites of E. coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.[11]

In mice, TLR stimulation Nutlin-3a mw of DC inhibits α-galactosidase A, which normally degrades lysosomal self-antigens to prevent full iNKT activation, though this mechanism is unlikely to be important in humans.[97, 98] CD1d and DC-dependent but TLR-independent activation of iNKT cells has been reported in responses to fungi including Aspergillus and Candida.[99] Fungal cell wall β-1,3-glucans bind pattern recognition receptors on APC to stimulate IL-12 release, which activates Pembrolizumab autoreactive iNKT cells. Invariant NKT cells also form part of the response to helminths, though the mechanism remains partly delineated. There is a requirement for CD1d, and for schistosome egg recognition by DC, though neither IL-12 nor TLR signalling is necessary.[100] Activation of iNKT cells in mouse cytomegalovirus infection is antigen-independent, relying on APC-derived IL-12.[101-103] In this context, iNKT cells behave as innate lymphocytes, amplifying the

immune response, a capacity that widens the range of pathogen defences in which they could be involved. The APC-derived cytokines have also been demonstrated to drive antigen-independent iNKT activation in a model of E. coli infection.[104] Priming of iNKT cells to be more responsive to IL-12 in the absence of foreign antigen 85 suggests that there is a hierarchy of activation stimuli for iNKT cells. For example, in response to Salmonella typhimurium, IL-12 amplifies a weak response to self-antigen,[24, 5] and DC from patients with advanced cancer are better able to activate iNKT cells if supplemented with IL-12.[105] If exogenous antigen, self-antigen and IL-12 are all present, which is the most important in activating iNKT cells? Many studies exploring iNKT-cell activation use hybridoma cell lines, which may lack the ability to respond to both antigen and cytokine signals. To address this, Brigl et al.

1) The metabolizing machinery for vitamin D has been characteriz

1). The metabolizing machinery for vitamin D has been characterized in multiple tissues, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) identified in many, if not all human tissue types.6 Dobnig et al. first observed that baseline hypovitaminosis D increased risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a population referred for elective angiograms. Those patients in the lowest quartiles of serum 25-OHD had a cardiovascular event rate over

twice that of those in the highest quartile after multivariate adjustment.7 Similar findings have been reported by Wolf and Wang in the dialysis populations,8,9 and subsequently Inaguma and others have reported that lower 25-OHD and 1,25-OHD levels are associated Selleck GSK-3 inhibitor with increased all-cause mortality in CKD stages 1–4 (summarized in Table 1).5,10,11 Further support for vitamin D’s pivotal role in mediating heightened Dabrafenib purchase cardiovascular risk in CKD has been provided by several investigators reporting a survival benefit with the use of active vitamin D, summarized in Table 2.8,18–25 In a study by Teng et al. cardiovascular event rates were almost halved by the use of supplements (7.6 per 100 person years vs 14.6 per 100 person

years, P < 0.001).22 Obviously both selection and indication bias has to be acknowledged, and may limit these epidemiological cohort studies. While VDR activation was once considered only possible by renally produced 1,25-OHD (which is the case for cardiac myocytes), it is now clear that 1,25-OHD can be produced in an autocrine or paracrine fashion by extra-renal

1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) expressed in a variety of tissues, including vascular smooth muscle cells, skin, breast, prostate, colon and cellular components of the immune system.31 To date, while renal CYP27B1 activity diminishes with advancing CKD stage,32 there is no evidence to suggest that extra-renal enzymatic activity is reduced, adding support to the assertion that circulating levels of 25-OHD (the substrate for extra-renal CYP27B1) are of vital importance when assessing the vitamin D status of an individual, especially with CKD. This was emphasized by GNA12 the work of Ravani, who identified that both 25- and 1,25-OHD were inversely related to the risk of both death and dialysis in unadjusted analyses.5 However, after using time-adjusted variables to account for deterioration in kidney function, 25-OHD remained a significant predictor of patient and renal survival, whereas 1,25-OHD did not, suggesting that 25-OHD is a better risk marker than 1,25-OHD in CKD.5 Insulin resistance is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in CKD, and all stages of the insulin resistant spectrum have been associated with 25-OHD deficiency.


Gaithersburg, MD, USA In this study, w


Gaithersburg, MD, USA In this study, we have analyzed the in vivo dynamics of the interaction between polyclonal Foxp3+ Treg cells, effector T (Teff) cells, and DCs in order to further our understanding of the mechanisms of Treg cell-mediated Trametinib mw suppression. Cotransfer of polyclonal activated Treg cells into healthy mice attenuated the induction of EAE. Suppression of disease strongly correlated with a reduced number of Teff cells in the spinal cord, but not with Treg cell-mediated inhibition of Th1/Th17 differentiation. Cotransfer of Treg cells with TCR-Tg Teff cells followed by immunization by multiple routes resulted in an enhanced number of Teff cells in the lymph nodes draining the site of immunization without an inhibition of Teff-cell differentiation. Fewer Teff cells could be detected in the blood in the presence of Treg cells and fewer T cells could access a site of antigen exposure in a modified delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Teff cells recovered from LNs in the presence of Treg cells expressed decreased levels of CXCR4, syndecan, and the sphingosine phosphate receptor, S1P1 (sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1). Thus, polyclonal Treg cells influence Teff-cell

responses by targeting trafficking pathways, thus allowing immunity to develop in lymphoid organs, but limiting the number of potentially auto-aggressive cells that are allowed to enter the tissues. Numerous mechanisms exist to both activate and dampen immune responses. A primary cell type involved in immune suppression is the MAPK Inhibitor Library mw thymic-derived Treg cell defined by the expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. Mutations in Foxp3 lead to severe defects of immunological homeostasis in both mouse and human 1. Treg cells have also been shown to play a pivotal role in numerous disease settings, including autoimmunity, infection, and tumor progression 2. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for suppressor function of Treg cells including the secretion of suppressive cytokines, direct cytolysis of T effector (Teff) cells, metabolic disruption through tryptophan catabolites,

adenosine or IL-2 deprivation, and direct interference of co-stimulation via expression of CTLA-4 3. Given the obvious interest in targeting Treg cells in various disease settings through pharmacological intervention, Avelestat (AZD9668) a more definitive understanding of their mechanism of action is warranted. To achieve this, the in vivo dynamics of the interaction between Treg cells, Teff cells, and DCs need to be more thoroughly evaluated. Upon immunological challenge, DCs capture antigen and migrate to draining LNs where they present the antigen to Teff cells 4. The Teff cells then become activated and undergo several rounds of division during which time they differentiate. After this has occurred, Teff cells leave the LN, enter the circulation, and ultimately enter tissues. All of these steps represent potential checkpoints where Treg cells may exert their influence.

Typhi, can infect these mice and cause aspects of the pathology t

Typhi, can infect these mice and cause aspects of the pathology that is observed in human patients. However, with respect to the elicited human immune responses, more needs to be done to evaluate the immune competence of these models. While it has become clear thus far that isotype-switched humoral immune responses are difficult to achieve, cell-mediated T-cell immunity can be detected

in most of the investigated infections. In contrast to adaptive immune responses, p38 MAPK inhibitor innate immunity is still largely unexplored in most of these infectious settings and remains an interesting and promising topic for examination. Therefore, further studies are required to characterize in detail the immune competence of human reconstituted innate leukocyte populations. Moreover, apart from the evaluation of genetically modified pathogens, which the field is starting to explore, genetic modifications by viral Alisertib chemical structure transduction of transferred hematopoietic progenitor cells have to be established. In addition, more information on the donor variability of reconstitution in relation to genetic polymorphisms needs to be gathered. Furthermore, a set of antibodies that not only deplete reconstituted human leukocyte populations, but instead block distinct receptors, needs to be established. Finally, treatments that robustly induce secondary lymphoid tissues

in mice with reconstituted human immune system components would be of great value. While several additional Janus kinase (JAK) methodological developments are needed to improve the versatility of in vivo models of human immune responses, combining these efforts with recent and ongoing studies of infection and immunity in vivo promises to result in new preclinical models that are more predictive than current models for immune reactivity and therapy in patients. Work in our laboratory is supported by the National Cancer Institute (R01CA108609), Sassella Foundation (10/02, 11/02, and 12/02), Cancer Research Switzerland (KFS-02652–08–2010), Association for International Cancer Research (11–0516), KFSPMS and KFSPHLD of the University of Zurich, Vontobel

Foundation, Baugarten Foundation, EMDO Foundation, Sobek Foundation, Fondation Acteria, Novartis, and Swiss National Science Foundation (310030_143979 and CRSII3_136241). The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“Macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils are professional phagocytes essential in the initial host response against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phagocytosis is the first step in phagocyte-pathogen interaction, where the pathogen is engulfed into a membrane-enclosed compartment termed a phagosome. Subsequent effector functions of phagocytes result in killing and degradation of the pathogen by promoting phagosome maturation, and, terminally, phago-lysosome fusion.

We note, however, that expression

We note, however, that expression LY2606368 clinical trial of RORγ and Runx1, two factors that are essential for NKT cell differentiation 43, was normal in Bcl11bdp−/− mice, indicating that Bcl11b controls NKT cell development independently of these factors. Our expression profiling analyses suggest that Bcl11b is required to prevent premature and inappropriate expression of many genes specifically expressed in mature CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells. We speculate that Bcl11b may serve as a timing

factor that holds cells in the immature, DP state until a constellation of factors is in place to support SP differentiation. It is likely that the premature SP gene expression program that is induced in the Bcl11b-deficient DP cells reflects both the direct loss of Bcl11b-dependent repression, and the precocious activity of SP-specific transcription factors (such as Klf2, Zbtb7b, Runx3, and Id2). Therefore, our data suggest that correct regulation of SP cell differentiation

involves mechanisms not only to induce cell-specific gene expression programs, but also to prevent these programs from being inappropriately expressed in immature cells. Mechanisms that prevent early expression of differentiation-associated genes have also been described in other systems. For instance, Polycomb-dependent repression has recently been shown to prevent the premature expression of structural genes in differentiating keratinocytes 44. It is of particular interest that that loss of Bcl11b in DP cells expressing low levels of CD3 results in the induction of genes encoding Zbtb7b and VX-765 Runx3, which are required for, and strongly upregulated during, CD4 and CD8 SP differentiation programs, respectively 45, 46. We found that Bcl11b bound to sequences in the regulatory regions of these genes, suggesting that Bcl11b directly represses

expression of Zbtb7b and Runx3 in immature T cells. The regulation of Zbtb7b has been intensively investigated in recent Urease years. Induction of Zbtb7b expression occurs downstream of TCR signaling and requires activation of GATA3 expression 47, whereas Runx3 contributes to Zbtb7b repression in CD8-committed cells 19. The mechanisms that render Zbtb7b silent prior to TCR signaling are less well understood but may in part involve repression by Runx complexes 19. Our present data suggest an essential role for Bcl11b in this early silencing, and thus identify another key player in the regulatory network controlling the dynamic regulation of Zbtb7b during T-cell differentiation. However, our results also raise several questions about how Bcl11b participates in Zbtb7b regulation. It will be important to identify activators responsible for Zbtb7b expression in Bcl11b-deficient DP cells, and determine how Bcl11b antagonizes these activators at the transcriptional level in WT cells.

There is a phylogenetic gap between Paracoccidioides spp isolate

There is a phylogenetic gap between Paracoccidioides spp. isolates among different regions of Latin America. In particular, those from the central region of Brazil (i.e. Mato Grosso state) exhibit a lower rate of genetic similarity. We aimed at investigating the phylogenetic classification of clinical isolates click here of Paracoccidioides spp. in Central Brazil and the different antigenic profiles that produce. Exoantigens were obtained from five clinical isolates: two P. brasiliensis (Pb166 and Pb2880) and three P. lutzii (PL2875, PL9840, and PL2912). The protein/glycoprotein profiles of P. lutzii

exoantigens were different from each other. Isolate PL9840 exhibited the most distinct bands, and isolates PL2875 and PL2912 exhibited more diffuse bands and a very intense band

between 50 and 60 kDa. P. brasiliensis isolates had similar protein profiles, exhibiting a low-intensity band at 220 kDa and a diffuse band between 50 and 60 kDa. P. lutzii isolates exhibit high species-specific antigen variability, which we have already been assessed in proteomic studies. “
“Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans. The emergence of resistance Selleck EX 527 to azole antifungals has raised the issue of using such antifungals in combination to optimise therapeutic outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro synergy of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) and fluconazole (FLC) against clinical isolates of C. albicans. The in vitro antifungal activity of PAB, a diterpene acid from Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon, was evaluated alone and in combination with FLC against 22 FLC-resistant (FLC-R) and 12 FLC-susceptible (FLC-S) C. albicans using the chequerboard

microdilution Paclitaxel in vitro method and time-killing test assays. Synergism was observed in all 22 (100%) FLC-R strains tested as determined by both fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) with values ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 and bliss independence (BI) models. Synergism was observed in two of 12 (17%) FLC-S strains as determined by FICI model with values ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 and in three of 12 (18%) FLC-S strains as determined by BI model. For FLC-R strains, the drug concentrations of FLC and PAB, where synergistic interactions were found, ranged from 0.06 to 4 μg ml−1 and 0.5 to 4 μg ml−1 respectively. For FLC-S strains, the drug concentrations of FLC and PAB were 1–8 μg ml−1 and 0.5–4 μg ml−1 respectively. The BI model gave results consistent with FICI, but no antagonistic activity was observed in any of the strains tested. These interactions between PAB and FLC were confirmed using the time-killing test for the selected strains. Fluconazole and PAB exhibited a good synergism against azole-R isolates of C. albicans. “
“A total of 124 Cryptococcus isolates, including 84 clinical strains obtained from cerebrospinal fluid from AIDS patients and 40 environmental isolates from pigeon excreta and from Eucalyptus trees, were studied.

Flow cytometry revealed

Flow cytometry revealed selleck inhibitor the typical expression of mesenchymal stromal cell markers, MSCs being positive for CD90, CD105, CD73 and negative for CD45, CD34, CD14, among

others. The surface marker profile of MSCs used in our experiments is shown in Table 1. There were no significant differences in surface profiles between B-MSC and S-MSC before co-culture, except for CD146, which showed very low expression levels on S-MSCs and was highly donor-dependent in B-MSCs. Cytometric bead array for several cytokines (n = 10 for day 2 and n = 5 for day 5) revealed high levels of IL-6 in cultures with MSCs, while IL-2, 4, TNF-α and IFN-γ were not detectable both in diluted and undiluted supernatants; IL-10 and IL-17a could be detected only sporadically in some supernatants without differences among the groups (data not shown). Neither IL-1ra, IL-1β nor IL-8 were detectable in the supernatants. CD4+ T cells enriched Ensartinib molecular weight in Tregs showed no significant IL-6 production when compared to co-cultures of S-MSCs and T cells and S-MSC single cultures (P < 0·001 for

comparison with S-MSC single-cell and T cell co-cultures at day 2, P < 0·05 for comparison of S-MSC single-cell cultures and P < 0·001 for comparison of S-MSC/T cell co-cultures at day 5, Fig. 3a,b). IL-6 production in S-MSCs was significantly higher than in B-MSC cultures at day 2 (P < 0·001, Fig. 3a) and significantly higher in S-MSC/T cell

co-cultures than in S-MSCs cultured alone (P = 0·01). At day 5, we observed an important decrease of IL-6 production in all groups, while the IL-6 quantity remained significantly higher in S-MSC/T cell co-cultures when compared to B-MSC/T cell co-cultures (P = 0·006; Fig. 3b). In order to determine whether or not the effects of MSCs on Tregs in co-culture could be reproduced by IL-6, CD4+ lymphocyte cultures enriched in Tregs were supplemented either with 5 ng/ml IL-6, 10 ng/ml IL-6 or supernatants from B-MSC cultures in passage 2. To assess the effective IL-6 concentrations in our supplemented media, IL-6 concentrations were analysed by cytometric bead array at days 2 and 5 of lymphocyte culture. The effective this website concentrations at both time-points were reduced to approximately a third of the initially administered concentrations (Table 2). However, in both the 5 ng/ml and the 10 ng/ml supplemented groups, the natural IL-6 level found in the B-MSC supernatants had been surmounted effectively. Figure 4a,b shows the effects of IL-6 and B-MSC supernatant supplementation on the CD4+ cultures. We could detect a significant decrease of the Treg proportion in non-supplemented T cell cultures compared to both the initial Treg percentage (P < 0·001, Fig. 4a) and T cell cultures supplemented with MSC supernatant (P = 0·003; Fig. 4a). There was no change in the CD4+ percentages between the groups (Fig. 4b).