The formazan crystals formed by viable cells were then solubilized in DMSO and measured at 490 nm for the absorbance (A) values. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. Plate colony formation assay Approximately 100 cells were added to each well of a six-well culture plate. After incubation at 37°C for 15 days, cells were washed twice with PBS and stained with Giemsa selleck chemicals llc solution. The number of colonies containing ≥50 cells was counted under a microscope [plate clone formation efficiency = (number of colonies/number of cells inoculated) × 100%].
Each experiment was performed in triplicate. Cell Cycle analysis Cells grown in regular growth or serum-free media for 36 h were collected, fixed in methanol and stained with PBS containing 10 μg/mL propidium iodide and 0.5mg/mL RNase A for 15 min at 37°C. The DNA content of labeled cells was acquired using FACS Caliber cytometry (BD Biosciences). Each experiment was performed in triplicate. In Vitro migration and Invasion assay Cells growing in the log phase were treated with trypsin and re-suspended as single-cell solutions. selleck kinase inhibitor A total of 1 × 105 cells were seeded on a fibronectin-coated polycarbonate membrane insert in a transwell apparatus (Corning Inc, USA). In the lower chamber, 600 μl RPMI 1652 with 10% NBCS added as a chemoattractant. After the cells were incubated for 14 h at 37°C and 5% CO2 incubator,
the insert was washed with PBS, and cells on the top surface of the insert were removed by a cotton
swab. The matrigel invasion assay was similar to the cell migration assay, except the transwell membrane was precoated with ECMatrix and the cells were incubated for 16 hours at 37°C and 5% CO2 incubator. Cells adhering to the lower surface were fixed by methanol, stained by Giemsa and counted under a microscope in five predetermined fields (×200). All assays were independently repeated at least three times. Results Downregulated C59 chemical structure expression of ECRG4 in Gliomas In order to assess the role of ECRG4 in glioma, we performed real-time PCR to measure the expression of ECRG4 mRNA transcripts in 10 paired gliomas and their adjacent brain tissues. As shown in Figure 1A, 9 glioma tissues showed markedly decreased expression (>2-fold change) of ECRG4 compared to their Selleck HSP inhibitor matched normal tissues. Figure 1 The reduced expression levels of ECRG4 mRNA in glioma. A. ECRG4 mRNA level was markedly downregualted in glioma tissue comparing to their matched normal brain tissues. (T: Tumor; N: Normal tissue). Overexpression of ECRG4 in glioma U251 cell line To study the biological functions of ECRG4, we introduced ECRG4 into U251 glioma cells using a pEGFP-N1 eucaryotic expression vector containing ECRG4 gene. Seven stably transfected cell clones were obtained. Real-time PCR identified two cell clones(ECRG4-5,-7) with the highest mRNA expression of ECRG4(Figure 2A).