The majority of nonprescription stimulant users reported obtaining the drugs from a peer with a prescription – a process termed diversion. The diversion of stimulants is very common and can begin in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood. A study conducted by Wilens et al. (2008) reported that lifetime rates of diversion ranged
from 16% to 29% of students with stimulant prescriptions asked to give, sell, or trade their medications (Wilens et al. 2008). One survey reported that 23.3% of middle and high school students taking prescribed stimulants had been solicited to divert their medication to others at a rate that increased from middle school to high school (McCabe et al. 2004). A review of 161 elementary and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical high school students Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical prescribed the stimulant MPH revealed that they had been asked to give or sell their medication to others (Musser et al. 1998). Data has shown that the diversion continues among college students. McCabe et al. found 54% of college students who were prescribed stimulants for ADHD had been approached to divert
their medication (McCabe and Boyd 2005). Nearly 29% of 334 college students had sold or given their medication to others (Upadhyaya et al. 2005). McCabe et al. (2005) examined the prevalence rates and correlates of nonprescription use of stimulants (Ritalin, Adderall, or Dexedrine) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical among US college students and found evidence that misuse is more prevalent among particular subgroups of US college students and types of colleges. The lifetime prevalence of nonprescription Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stimulant use was 6.9%, past-year prevalence was 4.1%, and past-month
prevalence was 2.1%. Multivariate analysis indicated that nonprescription use was higher among college students who were male, white, members of fraternities and sororities and earned lower grade point averages. Wilens et al. (2008) reported similar findings. Rates were higher at colleges located in the northeastern region of the United States and colleges with more competitive admission standards. Nonprescription stimulant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical users were more Alpelisib price likely to report use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, and other risky behaviors. Among college students, available evidence suggests that individuals who misuse MPH were more likely to be white, male, affiliated with a formally organized fraternity, and more likely to use other illicit and illegal substances (Bogle and Smith 2009). A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study examined Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease the nonprescription use of stimulants among student pharmacists (Lord et al. 2003). Lifetime prevalence of stimulant misuse was 7% and was more likely in students who were white, older, and fraternity or sorority members, whereas past-year misuse was more likely in whites and low academic achievers. A recent survey found that the misuse of prescription stimulants is also rampant among dental and dental hygiene students (McNiel et al. 2011).