Results: Findings showed that published descriptions of relevant

Results: Findings showed that published descriptions of relevant concepts important to patients with type 2 diabetes or AD are available for consideration in deciding on the most comprehensive approach to utility assessment. While the 15-dimensional health related quality of life measure (15D) seemed the most comprehensive measure for both diseases, the Health Utilities Index Selleckchem HM781-36B 3 (HUI 3) seemed to have the least coverage for type 2 diabetes

and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) for AD. Furthermore, some of the utility instruments contained items that could not be mapped onto either of the proposed conceptual models.

Conclusions: Content of the utility measure has a significant impact on the treatment effects that can be observed. This varies from one disease to the next and as such contributes to lack of consistency in observable utility effects and incremental utility scores. This observation appears to have been omitted from the method development considerations such as reference methods. As a result, we recommend that patients’ perspectives obtained via qualitative methods are taken into consideration in the ongoing methods development

in health state descriptions for generic utility instruments. Also, as a more immediate contribution to improving decision making, we propose that a content map of the chosen utility measure with patient-reported domains be provided as standard reporting in utility measurement in order to improve the transparency of ARN-509 the trade-offs in relation to patient relevance and Selleck Roscovitine consistency.”
“The ER-resident molecular chaperone BiP (binding protein) was overexpressed in soybean. When plants growing in soil were exposed to drought (by reducing or completely withholding watering) the wild-type lines showed a large decrease in leaf water potential and leaf wilting, but the leaves in the transgenic lines did not wilt

and exhibited only a small decrease in water potential. During exposure to drought the stomata of the transgenic lines did not close as much as in the wild type, and the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration became less inhibited than in the wild type. These parameters of drought resistance in the BiP overexpressing lines were not associated with a higher level of the osmolytes proline, sucrose, and glucose. It was also not associated with the typical drought-induced increase in root dry weight. Rather, at the end of the drought period, the BiP overexpressing lines had a lower level of the osmolytes and root weight than the wild type. The mRNA abundance of several typical drought-induced genes [NAC2, a seed maturation protein (SMP), a glutathione-S-transferase (GST), antiquitin, and protein disulphide isomerase 3 (PDI-3)] increased in the drought-stressed wild-type plants. Compared with the wild type, the increase in mRNA abundance of these genes was less (in some genes much less) in the BiP overexpressing lines that were exposed to drought.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3358242]“<

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3358242]“
“This study focused on the internal conductance (g(i)) along the plant profile of Ethiopian mustard under two light conditions: (i) light from the top only (I1); click here (ii) light from the top integrated by supplementary lateral light along the whole plant profile (I2). Lateral light strongly increased the productivity (e.g. +104% of seed oil) and net photosynthesis (A). The latter appeared more driven by g(i) (r=0.78**) than by stomatal conductance (g(s)) (r=0.51*). Importantly, irradiance

also considerably shortened the time from leaf appearance to senescence, which means that corresponding leaves in I1 and I2 had different ages. Therefore, since leaf age and irradiance have counteracting effects on g(i), I1 sometimes showed higher g(i) values than I2. With respect to irradiance, leaf age had clearly higher effects on g(i), which radically declined from the top to the basal leaves, even under constant light conditions. The internal conductance caused a significant drawdown of Proteasome function CO(2) from the sub-stomatal cavity (C(i)) to the site of carboxylation (C(c)) that, in turn, led to a substantial underestimation of V(cmax) calculated using the A/C(i) model. Again, the trends of g(i) and g(s) were not consistent along the plant profile, and so the ratio between stomatal and internal limitations to A changed

from top to bottom leaves, accordingly. This study suggests that g(i) may be a valuable trait for increasing photosynthetic capacity and productivity; nonetheless, it suggests caution in selecting leaves for high g(i), as the latter can considerably change along the plant profile due to Acalabrutinib price leaf age and irradiance effects.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to the heterogeneous group of non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules. They play an important role in physiological functions, especially during tissue development. Moreover, their cell-type specific expression levels are also thought to be altered in association with different pathological conditions, including metabolic disorders and cancer. However,

the vast majority of molecular assays for their quantification have been established for humans and mice, with no reports on specific research tools for dogs. Here canine-specific SYBRGreen based quantitative, real-time PCR assays are introduced for the quantification of 21 miRNAs and five small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). The assay includes a timesaving and economical universal one-tube cDNA synthesis approach which allows for a more robust relative quantification than the commonly used multiple specific reverse transcriptions. GeNorm and Norm-Finder analysis were used for the evaluation of potential housekeeping genes and identified miRNAs to be more stable housekeeping genes by trend. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

42, 95% confidence interval

(Cl) 0 04-0 79, P=0 03) and K

42, 95% confidence interval

(Cl) 0.04-0.79, P=0.03) and KAM impulse (coefficient = 1.79, 95% Cl 0.80-2.78, P<0.001) were positively associated with the severity of medial tibiofemoral cartilage defects. KAM impulse was also associated with the prevalence of medial tibiofemoral cartilage defects (odds ratio 4.78, 95% CI 1.10-20.76, P=0.04). Peak KAM (B=0.05, 95% Cl 0.01-0.09, P=0.02) and KAM impulse (B=0.16, 95% CI 0.06-0.25, P=0.002) were positively associated with medial:lateral tibial plateau bone area, and KAM impulse was also associated with medial tibial plateau bone area (B=133.7, 95% CI 4.0-263.3, P=0.04). There was no significant association between KAM measures see more and tibial cartilage volume.

Conclusion: Peak KAM and KAM impulse are associated with cartilage defects and subchondral bone area in patients with medial knee OA, suggesting that increased mechanical loading may play a role in the pathological changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone that occur with medial knee OA. (C) 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published

by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

To summarize the current state of cochlear implantation Selleckchem Nec-1s in children.

Recent findings

Hearing loss profoundly impacts a child’s ability to communicate and thereby affects educational and psychosocial development. The auditory cortex has sensitive periods during which it is maximally receptive to sound stimulus and consequent development. For this reason, there is impetus to implant children at a very young age, as a cochlear implant can provide auditory input during this critical window. Long-term follow-up of implanted children has shown that cochlear implants are able to provide substantial

language, academic, and social benefit. The criteria for cochlear implantation have broadened, and promising outcomes are being seen in populations that were not previously considered for implantation. The best language acquisition outcomes are seen in recipients who were implanted at a younger age and are in an environment rich in oral communication. Bilateral implantation offers some acoustic advantages.


Cochlear implants check details provide sound perception to deaf children and can mitigate, to varying extents, the effects of sound deprivation on auditory development. On the basis of our understanding of brain development and language outcomes, a wider population of children are now candidates for implantation than previously considered.”
“Background: Previous studies have reported that the attainment of goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are globally suboptimal, but contemporary data are scarce. The CEntralized Pan-Asian survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolemia (CEPHEUS-PA) is the largest evaluation of pharmacological treatment for hypercholesterolernia in Asia.

Methods: Experts in pediatric resuscitation developed two MCQ exa

Methods: Experts in pediatric resuscitation developed two MCQ exams using a set of pre-determined learning objectives. After a single center

pilot, the exam was used as an assessment of cognitive skills in the EXPRESS study, a multicenter trial examining the use of scripted debriefing and high-fidelity simulation in pediatric resuscitation education. Results from the MCQ in the pre-intervention phase of the EXPRESS study were used to assess the reliability and validity of the MCQ examination. In addition, an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was carried to assess the underlying structure of the PALS-based learning objectives.

Results: 435 health care professionals completed the MCQ examination with an average Selleckchem Cl-amidine score of 69.3%. Significantly higher examination results were seen in physicians vs. non-physicians, senior vs. junior physicians and participants with up-to-date PALS certification. The EFA results indicated four distinct categories of items were assessed.

Conclusion: This short MCQ examination demonstrated reasonable reliability and construct validity. It may be useful to assess pediatric resuscitation knowledge in future studies or courses. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Experimental data suggest that the RAD001 price B-cell antigen CD20 may play

a significant role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including glomerular diseases. These and other findings underpin PDGFR inhibitor the central concept of B-cell-depleting therapies that target CD20 antigen as treatments for lupus nephritis, idiopathic membranous nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, cryglobulinemic glomerulonephritis,

antibody mediated renal allograft rejection and recurrent glomerulonephritis in renal allograft. Use of rituximab as a B-cell depleting therapy has been associated with clinical improvement and has emerged as a possible adjunct or alternative treatment option in this field of nephrology.”
“Three new acetylated anthraquinone glycosides (1-3) were isolated from the seed of Cassia obtusifolia, together with one parent anthraquinone glycoside (1a). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods and physicochemical properties as obtusifoline-2-O–d-2, 6-di-O-acetylglucopyranoside (1), obtusifoline-2-O–d-glucopyranoside (1a), obtusifoline-2-O–d-3, 6-di-O-acetylglucopyranoside (2), and obtusifoline-2-O–d-4, 6-di-O-acetylglucopyranoside (3).”
“Objective To compare the tear-film osmolarity of normal cats and cats with conjunctivitis.

Animal studied The population consisted of shelter, research, and privately owned cats.

Procedures Cats were classified as normal or having conjunctivitis. An ophthalmic examination including Schirmer tear test (STT), fluorescein staining, tear-film break-up time (TFBUT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment was performed. The severity of conjunctivitis was graded and assigned a numerical score.

The population under study was served by two urban clinics in the

The population under study was served by two urban clinics in the first decennial and two urban and one provincial clinic in the


METHODS: TB rates among Status Indians, Canadian-born ‘others’ and the foreign-born were estimated using provincial and national databases. Program performance was measured in on-reserve Status Indians in each decennial.

RESULTS: In each decennial, the incidence rate in Status Indians and the foreign-born was greater than that in the Canadian-born ‘others’; respectively 27.7 and 33.0 times in Status Indians, and 8.0 and 20.9 times in the foreign-born. Between decennia’s, the rate fell by 56% in Status Indians, 58% in Canadian-born ‘others’, and 18% in the foreign-born. GDC-0994 concentration On-reserve Status Indians had higher rates than off-reserve Status Indians, and the three-clinic model out-performed the two-clinic model among those on-reserve. Rates in the foreign-born varied by World Bank region, and

were highest among those from Africa and Asia.

CONCLUSION: Status Indians and the foreign-born are at increased risk of TB in Canada. Significant progress towards TB elimination has been made in Status Indians but not in the foreign-born.”
“The beneficial effects derived from consuming natural antioxidants may not depend on the action of an individual LY3023414 molecular weight selleck chemicals antioxidant, but rather on the concerted action of several antioxidants naturally present. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations and combinations of antioxidants

that can produce synergistic effects (SyEs). Quantification of the lipoperoxyl radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants was carried out in a homogeneous model system where the free radicals were produced by the oxidation of methyl linoleate, initiated by the 2,2′-azobis (2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile). The greatest SyE (2.21, p<0.05) was seen in mixtures of all 4 antioxidants when used with concentrations of 15 mu M lycopene, 2.5 mu M vitamin E, 0.16 mu M vitamin C, and 10 mu M beta-carotene. Doubling the vitamin E concentration from 2.5 to 5.0 mu M in the mixture with all 4 antioxidant reduced the SyE to 1.69 (p<0.05). Other combinations produced synergistic effects that ranged from 1.28 to 1.41.”
“SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) screening clinic.

OBJECTIVE: TO determine TB prevalence at entry, screening yield and incidence in immigrants on a TB health undertaking (TBU) who were selected for post-migration screening due to an abnormal chest radiograph (CXR) in Victoria, Australia, in the years 1996-2006.

METHOD: Rates of notified TB calculated from linkage of a screening programme database with the Victorian TB database.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3365412]“<

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3365412]“
“The aim of this study was to assess the possible circulation of genetic resistance determinants and chromosomal point mutations in quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolated

from livestock from central Italy. Forty-nine SYN-117 E. coil isolates were recovered from animals during the surveillance activities of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Abruzzo e Molise (IZSA&M), Italy, over 2 years. The plasmid resistance determinants and point mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV were characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing. Of the 49 E. coli isolates, 34 were resistant to nalidixic acid, 4 to ciprofloxacin and 11 to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Chromosomal point mutations were found in gyrA gene (Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn)

and gyrB (Gln434His, Lys444Arg and Gly435Val). We also report the simultaneous presence Small molecule library of qnrS1 quinolone resistance determinant, dfrA1-aadA22 gene cassettes and amino acid substitution Ser83Leu in the gyrA gene in an E. coli strain resistant only to nalidixic acid.”
“To evaluate effects of two behavioral weight-loss interventions (in-person, remote) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared to a control intervention.

Four hundred and fifty-one obese US adults with at least one cardiovascular risk factor completed five measures of HRQOL and depression: MOS SF-12 physical component summary (PCS) and

mental component summary; EuroQoL-5 dimensions single index and visual analog scale; PHQ-8 depression symptoms; and PSQI sleep quality scores KPT-8602 chemical structure at baseline and 6 and 24 months after randomization. Change in each outcome was analyzed using outcome-specific mixed-effects models controlling for participant demographic characteristics.

PCS-12 scores over 24 months improved more among participants in the in-person active intervention arm than among control arm participants (P < 0.05, ES = 0.21); there were no other statistically significant treatment arm differences in HRQOL change. Greater weight loss was associated with improvements in most outcomes (P < 0.05 to < 0.0001).

Participants in the in-person active intervention improved more in physical function HRQOL than participants in the control arm did. Greater weight loss during the study was associated with greater improvement in all PRO except for sleep quality, suggesting that weight loss is a key factor in improving HRQOL.”
“Objectives. Guided bone augmentation (GBA) in its most challenging form is the creation of new bone through the guidance of bone cells to an area beyond the original outer skeletal envelope.

Five random decamer primers were chosen, among 34 tested, for the

Five random decamer primers were chosen, among 34 tested, for the analysis of

433 individuals. Eighty-eight bands (genetic loci) were scored, all of which were polymorphic. No indication of reduced genetic variability was observed in the cultured populations. In contrast, a loss in genetic diversity was observed in populations from two localities (Canakkale and Kalochori) that are heavily polluted by chemical contaminants. F-ST analyses and exact tests revealed significant heterogeneity among M. galloprovincialis population samples, JQ-EZ-05 although their genetic divergence seemed to be independent of geographic distances. Anthropogenic activities, i.e., marine pollution and transplantation of mussels, appear to have played an important role in shaping patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among Greek M. galloprovincialis populations.”
“Purpose: Purple sweet potato (PSP) pigments have been widely accepted as antioxidants but their radioprotective effect still remains unclear. In this study we investigated the effect of PSP pigments on Co-60 gamma-ray-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in murine thymocytes.

Materials and methods: The murine thymocytes were pretreated by PSP pigments before exposure to 4 Gy Co-60 gamma-rays. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptotic cells and mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species

(ROS) were detected using 2′,7′,-dichlorofluorescein diacetate see more (DCFH-DA)

probe and the activity of antioxidant enzymes was tested by biochemical assay after irradiation. Cytochrome c, caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured by Western blotting.

Results: After treatment with PSP pigments and exposure to 4 Gy radiation the apoptosis of thymocytes was reduced and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential was maintained compared BMS-345541 mw to control cells. In the presence of PSP pigments, ROS were reduced and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were protected and in some cases increased. All the pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome oxidase, caspase 3 and PARP) decreased in PSP pigments pretreated thymocytes compared to irradiated cells in the absence of PSP pigments.

Conclusions: Pre-treatment with PSP pigments significantly inhibited Co-60 gamma-ray-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. This radioprotective effect might be related to ROS scavenging, the enhancement of the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the maintenance of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and the sequential inhibition of cytochrome c release and downstream caspase and PARP cleavage.”
“Because of its specific electrochemical properties, copper is an essential heavy metal for living organisms. As with other heavy metals, high levels can provoke damage.

The association between preconceptional folate supplementation an

The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease

in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010). Y27632 Adjustment for maternal characteristics

age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between Selleckchem Mizoribine folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between shorter duration (< 1 y) of preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was not significant after adjustment for maternal characteristics.

However, the risk of spontaneous preterm birth decreased with the duration of preconceptional folate supplementation (test for trend of survivor functions, p cancer metabolism targets = 0.01) and was the lowest in women who used folate supplementation for 1 y or longer. There was also no significant association with other complications of pregnancy studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics.

Conclusions: Preconceptional folate supplementation is associated with a 50%-70% reduction in the incidence of early spontaneous preterm birth. The risk of early spontaneous preterm birth is inversely proportional to the duration of preconceptional folate supplementation. Preconceptional folate supplementation was specifically related to early spontaneous preterm birth and not associated with other complications of pregnancy.”
“Composites of conducting polymers and metal oxides have a potential role in electronic devices because of their enhanced physical and electronic properties. An in situ synthesis of metal oxide nanocomposites of polyaniline (PANI) and tanninsulfonic acid doped PANI was carried out at -10 degrees C with two different ratios of aniline to sodium persulfate (oxidant) and the simultaneous incorporation of TiO2, Al2O3, and ZnO nanopowders. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements.

After root

canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10

After root

canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain. Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square and ANOVA Vorasidenib tests and logistic regression analysis.

Results: The mean pain level during root canal treatment was 2.9 +/- 3.0 (median = 2) in a VAS between 0 and 10. Forty percent of patients experienced no pain. Gender, age, arch, previous NSAIDs or AB treatment and anaesthetic type did not influence significantly the pain level (p > 0.05). Pain during root canal treatment was significantly greater in molar teeth (OR = 10.1; 95% C.I. = 1.6 – 63.5; p = 0.013). Root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques did not affect significantly patient’s pain during root canal treatment (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Patients feel more pain when RCT is carried out on molar teeth. The root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques do not affect significantly the patients’ pain during RCT.”
“Objective: The reported mortality reduction of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) compared Vactosertib with open repair in patients with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA), as observed in observational studies, might be flawed by selection bias based on anatomical suitability for eEVAR. In the present study, we compared mortality in EVAR suitable versus non-EVAR-suitable patients with

a ruptured AAA who were all treated with conventional open repair.

Materials and Methods: In all patients presenting with a suspected rAAA, computed tomography angiography (CTA) scanning was performed. All consecutive patients with a confirmed rAAA on preoperative CTA scan and Tozasertib concentration treated with open repair between April 2002 and April 2008 were included. Anatomical suitability for eEVAR was determined by two blinded independent reviewers. Outcomes evaluated were mortality (intra-operative, 30-day, and 6-month), morbidity, complications requiring re-intervention and length of hospital stay.

Results: A total of 107 consecutive patients presented with a rAAA and underwent preoperative CTA scanning. In 25 patients,

eEVAR was performed. In the 82 patients who underwent open repair, CIA showed an EVAR-suitable rAAA in 33 patients (41.8%) and a non-EVAR-suitable rAAA in 49 patients. Thirty-day and 6-month mortality rate was 15/33 (45.5%; 95% confidence interval (Cl) 28.1-63.7) and 18/33 (54.5%; 95% CI 36.4-71.9) in the EVAR-suitable group versus 24/49 (49.0%; 95% CI 34.4-63.7) (P = 0.75) and 29/49 (59.2%; 95% CI 44.2-73.0) (P = 0.68) in the non-EVAR-suitable group, respectively.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that anatomical suitability for EVAR is not associated with lower early and midterm mortality in patients treated with open ruptured AAA repair. Therefore, the reported reduction in mortality between eEVAR and open repair is unlikely due to selection bias based on anatomical AAA configuration. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Methods: HK Chinese and UK Caucasian patients with CEAP clinical

Methods: HK Chinese and UK Caucasian patients with CEAP clinical grade 4-6 venous disease were enrolled. Patients with conditions known to be associated with thrombophilia (TP) were excluded. UK and HK patients were matched by gender, age (within 5 years) and by CEAP clinical grade. All subjects underwent clinical examination, venous duplex ultrasound, and measurement of Hcy and factors (F) VIII, IX and XI.

Results: 63 Patients were enrolled

in each group: Mean age 64y (HK group); 67y (UK group). 37% were female; 19% had active venous ulceration. One-third of patients in each group had deep venous reflux. High Hcy, FIX and FXI were significantly more common in the UK group. Multiple TP was more common in the UK group: raised levels of >= 2 factors in 26 vs. 14 patients (P = 0.022, x(2)). Median Hcy (14.3 vs. 10.8 mu mol/L; P < 0.0005, Ipatasertib Wilcoxon signed rank [WSR]), FIX (131 vs. 115%; P = 0.048), and FXI (114 vs. 97%; P = 0.002) were significantly higher in the UK group. There was no significant difference in FVIII levels.

Conclusions: Raised procoagulant factors were more common in Caucasians compared with Chinese patients with CVI in this study. As with the inherited thrombophilias, the pattern of raised procoagulant factors in Chinese patients appears to differ from that in Caucasians. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular

Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To evaluate sensitivity and validity of the Danish Selleck Sapanisertib National Patient Registry (NPR) including relevant International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision (ICD-8) and

International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes and explore potential benefits of combining diagnosis and department codes in composite search strategies.

Study Design and Setting: The study click here period was 1985-2004. Medical records of patients identified with one or more of seven ICD-8 or ICD-10 codes from a number of registries were reviewed to confirm or reject the craniopharyngioma diagnosis. NPR sensitivity was evaluated in North Jutland County through comparison with hospital registries, the county registry, and the Danish Cancer Registry. Codes and search strategies were studied using NPR data from Denmark (population 5.2 million).

Results: In the North Jutland County study, the NPR identified 95% of new patients with histologically verified or probable craniopharyngioma. In the code and search strategy studies, the NPR search identified 684 patients. Records were retrieved in 607 (89%), of whom 185 (30%) had verified or probable craniopharyngioma. Searches combining “”best code”" and “”highly specialized department”" or “”neurosurgery procedure”" registrations improved validity considerably, whereas reducing sensitivity only modestly.

Conclusion: The NPR identified 95% of new craniopharyngioma patients, but only 30% of cases were correct. Validity was improved by applying a modified composite search strategy.