Bile samples were directly frozen at −80°C and were thawed only o

Bile samples were directly frozen at −80°C and were thawed only once just before proteomic analysis. Bile samples were diluted in H2O to a final protein concentration of 1 mg/mL, as verified with the bicinchoninic acid assay (Interchim, Montlucon, France). For CE-MS analysis, 0.7 mL diluted bile was added

to 0.7 mL n-butanol/iso-proyl ether 4:6 (v/v) and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 14,000 rpm and 4°C. The lower aqueous phase was extracted and diluted with 0.5 mL of 8 M urea, followed by 1 mL H2O, and passed over a 10 kDa MWCO Centrisart ultrafilter (Sartorius, Goettingen, PLX-4720 datasheet Germany) at 3,000 rpm until 1.4 mL filtrate was obtained. The filtrate was desalted on a PD-10 column (GE Healthcare, München, Germany) preequilibrated in 0.01% aqueous NH4OH (Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany). After elution with ammonium buffer, the sample was lyophilized, stored at 4°C, and resuspended

in CE-MS running buffer containing 20% acetonitrile and 1% formic acid before analysis. CE-MS analysis was performed as described using a P/ACE MDQ capillary electrophoresis system (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA) on-line coupled to a Micro-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonic, Bremen, Germany).19, PLX3397 supplier 22 The ESI sprayer (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was grounded, and the ion spray interface potential was set between −4.0 and −4.5 kV. Data acquisition and MS acquisition methods were automatically controlled by the CE via contact-close-relays. Spectra medchemexpress were accumulated every 3 seconds over a range of m/z 350 to 3,000. Details regarding accuracy, precision,

selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and stability of the CE-MS method have been described.19 Mass spectral ion peaks representing identical molecules at different charge states were deconvoluted into single masses using MosaiquesVisu software.23 Only signals were included with a charge >1 observed in a minimum of three consecutive spectra and with signal-to-noise ratios >4.24 The software employs probabilistic clustering and uses isotopic distribution and conjugated masses for charge-state determination of peptides/proteins. The resulting peak list characterizes each peptide by its molecular mass, CE-migration time, and ion signal intensity (amplitude). Because these parameters are influenced by the amount of salt and peptides in the sample, comparison of peptide spectra requires normalization. CE migration time and MS-detected mass were normalized by the definition of 339 clusters of peptides covering a range of 19.39 to 37.93 minutes in CE-migration time and 0.830 to 6.456 kDa in molecular mass. Amplitude calibration was based on 38 peptides with >60% abundance, >100 counts ion signal intensity above baseline, and <130% amplitude deviation. Detected peptides were deposited, matched, and annotated in a Microsoft SQL database, allowing comparison of multiple samples (patient groups).

3b) Overall colectomy-free survival was 464% (Fig 4a) Similar

3b). Overall colectomy-free survival was 46.4% (Fig. 4a). Similarly, the addition

of AZA after CSA treatment significantly reduced the colectomy rate (Fig. 4b). Among CSA responders, AZA naïve patients (patients who did not receive AZA prior to CSA treatment) had a significantly lower probability of a colectomy than patients with prior AZA treatment (Fig. 4c). Among patients treated with a starting dose of 4 mg/kg per day of CSA, the first concentration of serum CSA was often over 600 ng/mL. A starting dose of 3 mg/kg per day significantly reduced initial serum CSA levels (463.0 ± 82.3 vs 611.0 ± 90.8, P < 0.0001). The rate of CSA effectiveness and adverse events was not significantly different between a starting dose of 3 mg/kg per day and 4 mg/kg/day (data not shown). There were no serious bacterial infections that occurred during CSA treatment. The administration of CSA was discontinued in four cases: two cases due to liver dysfunction, one due to renal dysfunction Z-VAD-FMK order and one due selleck chemical to a concomitant mental disorder. An antihypertensive drug was started in one case during

CSA treatment. A magnesium agent was administrated in four cases due to hypomagnesemia. This retrospective study describes the experience of CSA therapy and the efficacy of an immunomodulator (AZA) as a bridging therapy. In our results, the short-term efficacy rate of CSA was approximately 70%, which is similar to previous reports from Western countries. Short-term efficacy was affected by three factors: 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 (i) more than 10 000 mg of PSL prior to CSA treatment; (ii) positivity for C7-HRP; and (iii) disease duration more than 4 years. High amounts of PSL and long disease duration might indicate the disease severity and refractoriness and these two factors might confound with each other. Although C7-HRP-positive patients were treated with concomitant gancyclovir treatment, CSA-related immunosuppression might stimulate cytomegalovirus activity,8

resulting in a decrease in the response rate. The administration of AZA after successful CSA treatments was the sole element that prolonged relapse-free survival at 1 year and colectomy-free survival. On the other hand, CSA responders with prior AZA treatment demonstrated poor responses and received colectomies. Our observations suggest a need for surgical intervention in patients with AZA administration prior to CSA treatment. Initially, we followed the regimen of Lichtiger et al. (starting dose of 4 mg/kg per day) at the beginning of the CSA treatment.5 However, 3 mg/kg per day was sufficient to keep serum CSA levels at 350–450 ng/mL. CSA is primarily eliminated through biotransformation by cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A in the intestinal wall and liver, excreted to bile juice. However, the clearance of CSA differs between Japanese and white populations. Japanese populations have lower CSA clearance compared to white.9 Thus, we recommend a starting dose of 3 mg/kg per day CSA.

3b) Overall colectomy-free survival was 464% (Fig 4a) Similar

3b). Overall colectomy-free survival was 46.4% (Fig. 4a). Similarly, the addition

of AZA after CSA treatment significantly reduced the colectomy rate (Fig. 4b). Among CSA responders, AZA naïve patients (patients who did not receive AZA prior to CSA treatment) had a significantly lower probability of a colectomy than patients with prior AZA treatment (Fig. 4c). Among patients treated with a starting dose of 4 mg/kg per day of CSA, the first concentration of serum CSA was often over 600 ng/mL. A starting dose of 3 mg/kg per day significantly reduced initial serum CSA levels (463.0 ± 82.3 vs 611.0 ± 90.8, P < 0.0001). The rate of CSA effectiveness and adverse events was not significantly different between a starting dose of 3 mg/kg per day and 4 mg/kg/day (data not shown). There were no serious bacterial infections that occurred during CSA treatment. The administration of CSA was discontinued in four cases: two cases due to liver dysfunction, one due to renal dysfunction Torin 1 order and one due selleck chemicals llc to a concomitant mental disorder. An antihypertensive drug was started in one case during

CSA treatment. A magnesium agent was administrated in four cases due to hypomagnesemia. This retrospective study describes the experience of CSA therapy and the efficacy of an immunomodulator (AZA) as a bridging therapy. In our results, the short-term efficacy rate of CSA was approximately 70%, which is similar to previous reports from Western countries. Short-term efficacy was affected by three factors: MCE (i) more than 10 000 mg of PSL prior to CSA treatment; (ii) positivity for C7-HRP; and (iii) disease duration more than 4 years. High amounts of PSL and long disease duration might indicate the disease severity and refractoriness and these two factors might confound with each other. Although C7-HRP-positive patients were treated with concomitant gancyclovir treatment, CSA-related immunosuppression might stimulate cytomegalovirus activity,8

resulting in a decrease in the response rate. The administration of AZA after successful CSA treatments was the sole element that prolonged relapse-free survival at 1 year and colectomy-free survival. On the other hand, CSA responders with prior AZA treatment demonstrated poor responses and received colectomies. Our observations suggest a need for surgical intervention in patients with AZA administration prior to CSA treatment. Initially, we followed the regimen of Lichtiger et al. (starting dose of 4 mg/kg per day) at the beginning of the CSA treatment.5 However, 3 mg/kg per day was sufficient to keep serum CSA levels at 350–450 ng/mL. CSA is primarily eliminated through biotransformation by cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A in the intestinal wall and liver, excreted to bile juice. However, the clearance of CSA differs between Japanese and white populations. Japanese populations have lower CSA clearance compared to white.9 Thus, we recommend a starting dose of 3 mg/kg per day CSA.

Our studies in this report implicate that circulating

Our studies in this report implicate that circulating ��-catenin signaling CD4+ T cells from HCV-infected individuals are skewed toward Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation via secretion of TSLP from HCV-infected hepatocytes (Fig. 1). In addition, a combination of TSLP with HCV proteins (i.e., NS3/5) increases Th17 differentiation (Fig. 6). Interestingly, another group showed that TGF-β and IL-10, which are induced by the HCV NS4 protein, suppress Th1 and Th17 responses in HCV-infected patients.23 Given that the above study used the NS4 protein alone, it is possible that this viral protein alone is able to dampen the immune response by way of production of IL-10,

which, in turn counteracts Th17 responses. However, our study is based on the whole virus, JFH-1, containing all HCV proteins and thereby DCs in exposure to JFH-1 HCV virus produce TSLP. Moreover, the production of TSLP depends on TGF-β and has been shown to antagonize IL-10 production. Recent studies have reported that HCV-specific IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells are detectable in blood and liver of chronically HCV-infected patients.8, 24 In addition, IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells have also been shown to be present in chronic HCV-infected patients.22, 23, 25 These results suggest that HCV-specific IL-17-producing T cells are

not limited to the CD4+ T cells alone, but also CD8+ T cells. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of these Th17 cell buy PF-02341066 responses in HCV infection were not elucidated. Our results suggest a mechanistic link between TSLP derived from HCV-infected hepatocytes and the infiltration of IL-17-producing Th17 T-cells MCE公司 into the HCV-infected liver. HCV-derived proteins play a role in inducing TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-21 production from monocyte-differentiated DCs.26 In terms of a potential relationship between TSLP and these cytokines, there is no existing report for a direct effect of these cytokines in TSLP induction. However, it is worthwhile to point that

IL-6 is well known to activate STAT3 and TSLP is also able to induce STAT3 activation.27 Thus, there is the convergence of intracellular pathways downstream of TSLP and IL-6 and thereby these cytokines act in similar ways leading to skew T-cell responses towards Th17 cells. Our studies in this report demonstrate that HCV infection of hepatocytes induce TSLP production by these cells, resulting in the activation and maturation of DCs with increased expression of CCL17, CCL22, and CCL20 chemokines. Importantly, the blockade of TSLP action by neutralizing antibodies prevents DC activation/maturation conditioned by HCV-infected hepatocytes (Fig. 4). Thus, there may be at least two different pathways for triggering DC activation and maturation during viral infection: (1) direct sensing of viral PAMP by DCs, and (2) crosstalk between virus-infected cells and DCs.

We first used a multipathway reporter array to explore the potent

We first used a multipathway reporter array to explore the potential signaling pathway of miR-140-5p regulated. As shown in Fig. 4A, miR-140-5p expression attenuated the activity selleck compound of TGF-β and mitogen-activated protein kinase / extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling, both of which are crucial for the regulation of cell migration.20-22 We therefore focused on these two pathways to search for potential targets based on those genes with oncogenic properties using the miRanda, TargetScan, and PicTar algorithms, and only those targets detected by all programs were considered. Interestingly,

TGFBR1 and FGF9 were found to be the direct downstream targets, and they are implicated in TGF-β and MAPK/ERK signaling, Selleckchem GSI-IX respectively. To demonstrate that miR-140-5p binds to the 3′-UTR of TGFBR1 and FGF9, we performed miR-140-5p-based luciferase assay using the constructs described in Fig. 4B. As expected, miR-140-5p directly bound to TGFBR1 and FGF9 3′-UTR, and by which it remarkably reduced luciferase activities, whereas cells

with mutant TGFBR1 and FGF9 3′-UTR displayed much higher luciferase activities (Fig. 4C). Moreover, western blot analysis and immunostaining further demonstrated that ectopic miR-140-5p dramatically suppressed the endogenous protein levels for TGFBR1 and FGF9 in HCCLM3 and MHCC97-H cells (Fig. 4D,E). Consistent with these results, attenuated expression for Smad3, p-ERK, and H-Ras were noted in miR-140-5p-transduced cells (Fig. 4D,E). Taken together, these results

indicated that TGFBR1 and FGF9 were direct downstream targets for miR-140-5p in HCC cells. The above results prompted us to examine whether miR-140-5p suppresses HCC growth and metastasis through repression of TGFBR1 and FGF9 signaling. For this purpose, we first examined whether blockage of TGFBR1 and FGF9 would mimic the effect of miR-140-5p expression. We introduced siRNA for TGFBR1, FGF9, and both TGFBR1 and FGF9 into HCCLM3 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed that the expression of TGFBR1 and FGF9 was inhibited (Supporting Fig. 2). As expected, compared to the control group, HCCLM3 cells transfected with TGFBR1 and MCE FGF9 siRNA displayed poor wound healing (Fig. 5B) and suppressed invasive activity (Fig. 5C). Interestingly, cell proliferation assay (Fig. 5D), cell cycle analysis (Fig. 5E), and colony formation assay (Fig. 5F) confirmed that HCCLM3 cells treated with FGF9 siRNA resembled the effect of ectopic miR-140-5p expression on HCCLM3 cells, and importantly, this phenotype was not produced in cells transfected with TGFBR1 siRNA alone. Nevertheless, ectopic TGFBR1 and FGF9 expression in miR-140-5p-transduced cells attenuated the inhibitory effect of miR-140-5p on HCC growth and metastasis (Fig.

Immunohistochemistry using the antibody reacting with the C termi

Immunohistochemistry using the antibody reacting with the C terminus of Foxp3 detected only mononuclear cells (Treg cells), but the antibody reacting with the N terminus highlighted cholangiocarcinoma cells as well as Treg cells (Fig. 4A). The cytoplasm

as well as nucleus of tumor cells was positive in several cases. However, because R428 mw Foxp3 is a transcription factor, the nuclear pattern was evaluated as functional expression. Consequently, 21 of 54 (39%) cholangiocarcinomas tested positive for Foxp3 by the antibody reacting with the N terminus. The relation between the IgG4 reaction and Foxp3 expression in cholangiocarcinoma cells is shown in Fig. 5. In cases of positivity for Fopx3, the number of IgG4-positive cells was significantly higher than in cases of negativity for Foxp3. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that a cholangiocarcinoma cell line, HuCCT1, expressed the mRNA of Foxp3, but close examination using four sets of primers corresponding to exons 1, 3, 10-12, and 12 revealed a lack of exon 3 (Fig. 6), suggesting the presence of a splicing variant of Foxp3 in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Moreover, RT-PCR and ELISA revealed that HuCCT1 cells expressed IL-10 mRNA (Fig. 6) and protein in the culture medium at 7.8-15.6 pg/mL. IgG4 is important to the pathogenesis of IgG4-related diseases. SP600125 nmr However, patients with pancreatic

adenocarcinomas accompanying IgG4 reactions and/or elevated serum IgG4 levels4, 18-20 and with pancreatic and biliary cancers arising from IgG4-related diseases20-22 have been reported, though a cause-and-effect

relationship between IgG4 reactions MCE and cancers has yet to be demonstrated. Moreover, in IgG4-nonrelated diseases, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, IgG4 reactions were found to various degrees.23, 24 Therefore, the presence of IgG4-positive cells is not a histological hallmark of IgG4-related diseases, and IgG4 reactions are speculated to be nonspecific in several pathological conditions, including cholangiocarcinomas. The present study also demonstrated the presence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cases with abundant IgG4 reaction, though there was no significant difference in IgG4-positive cell counts among anatomical locations of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (common bile ducts, gallbladder, and the Papilla of Vater). The significance and mechanisms of IgG4 reactions in cancers as well as IgG4-related diseases are still unknown, but we speculated that cancer cells directly participate in the histogenesis of IgG4 reactions. Because the regulatory cytokine IL-10 is known to induce the differentiation of IgG4-positive plasma cells or favor B cell switching to IgG4 in the presence of IL-4,5, 6 we noted the IL-10–related regulatory cytokine network around cholangiocarcinoma tissue in this study.

After PH, the remnant liver adapts to an immediate BA overload[3]

After PH, the remnant liver adapts to an immediate BA overload[3] by regulating BA synthesis and transport to protect liver cells from BA toxicity.[5, 6] Moreover BA, increasingly viewed as signaling molecules,[9] affect both this adaptive process[5] and liver regeneration

itself, mainly through binding selleckchem to FXR.[4, 6] We investigated the previously unexplored impact of the membrane-bound BA receptor, TGR5, during liver regeneration after PH in mice. Although PH induces a transient BA hepatic overload in WT mice, massive hepatocyte necrosis and cholestasis were observed with delayed liver regeneration only in TGR5 KO mice after PH, suggesting that the ability to challenge BA overload before significant cell damage occurs was, in some way, exceeded in TGR5 KO mice. The lack of TGR5 resulted in more hydrophobic bile and in excessive hepatic inflammation after PH, associated with deficient adaptation of bile composition and flow, as well as insufficient BA efflux in urine, all these factors contributing to excessive BA overload. Cytokine production and release are finely tuned after PH, in a balanced way, to both protect liver cells and promote them for growth-factor–dependent progression into

the cell cycle.[2] The exacerbated post-PH induction of cytokines observed in TGR5 KO mice may thus have contributed to delay regeneration, but also to enhance cholestasis,[6, 26] and to favor hepatocyte necrosis, as see more suggested by KC depletion experiments. However, because early post-PH liver injury was not affected by KC depletion (Fig. 4), inflammation appears more as a worsening, rather than as a triggering, factor in the PH-induced TGR5 KO phenotype. We observed that plasma, liver, bile, and feces from TGR5 KO mice exhibited a more hydrophobic BA

composition, as suggested previously.[17] Interestingly, small heterodimer partner null mice are more susceptible to BDL-induced liver damage than WT mice, because they have a more hydrophobic BA pool.[27] In the same line, mice fed with a lithocholic acid–enriched MCE diet exhibit a hydrophobic bile composition and bile duct obstruction leading to destructive cholangitis with bile infarcts.[28] More recently, FXR-dependent production of fibroblast growth factor 15 has been proposed to protect liver from BA overload by switching BA composition toward a more hydrophilic profile.[29] Thus, too much hydrophobic BA accumulating in the TGR5 KO liver immediately after PH may have led, by itself, to liver injury. This hypothesis is supported by the rescued post-PH phenotype in experiments with BA resin (CT) on the one hand and by the severe phenotypes observed in TGR5 KO mice after BDL or CA-enriched feeding on the other hand.

Using daily diary adherence data, patients’ adherence to preventi

Using daily diary adherence data, patients’ adherence to preventive agents was dichotomized as “Inconsistent” (ie, adhered fewer than 80% of days) or “Consistent” (ie, adhered ≥80% of days during the past month). Results.— The proportion

of adherent African American patients (69%) did not differ significantly from the proportion of adherent Caucasian patients (82%). Exploratory univariate logistic regression analyses Ku-0059436 chemical structure found that preventive medication adherence levels of 80% or less were associated with being diagnosed with major depressive disorder and lower levels of headache management self-efficacy. Conclusions.— Future research should test if interventions that reduce depressive

symptoms and increase patients’ levels of headache management self-efficacy can produce concomitant increases in adherence to preventive headache agents. “
“(Headache 2010;50:431-441) Objective.— To investigate nitric oxide (NO)-mediated changes in expression of cyclic nucleotide degrading phosphodiesterases 2A (PDE2A), PDE3B, and PDE5A in human endothelial cells. Seliciclib concentration Background.— Nitric oxide induces production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which along with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is degraded by PDEs. NO donors and selective inhibitors of PDE3 and PDE5 induce migraine-like headache and play a role

in endothelial dysfunction during stroke. The current study investigates possible NO modulation of cGMP-related PDEs relevant to headache induction in a cell line containing such PDEs. Methods.— Real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blots were used to show expression of PDE2A, PDE3B, and PDE5A in a stable cell line of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Effects of NO on PDE expression were analyzed at specific time intervals after continued MCE公司 DETA NONOate administration. Results.— This study shows the expression of PDE2A, PDE3B, and PDE5A mRNA and PDE3B and PDE5A protein in human cerebral endothelial cells. Long-term DETA NONOate administration induced an immediate mRNA up-regulation of PDE5A (1.9-fold, 0.5 hour), an early peak of PDE2A (1.4-fold, 1 and 2 hours) and later up-regulation of both PDE3B (1.6-fold, 4 hours) and PDE2A (1.7-fold, 8 hours and 1.2-fold after 24 hours). Such changes were, however, not translated into significant changes in protein expression indicating few, if any, functional effects. Conclusions.— Long-term NO stimulation modulated PDE3 and PDE5 mRNA expression in endothelial cells. However, PDE3 and PDE5 protein levels were unaffected by NO. The presence of PDE3 or PDE5 in endothelial cells indicates that selective inhibitors may have functional effects in such cells.

Endobiliary RFA was applied to the common bile duct for 60 second

Endobiliary RFA was applied to the common bile duct for 60 seconds using by RFA probe which learn more could be endoscopically inserted. ERC was repeated

two and four weeks respectively after the RFA to identify BBS. After the strictures were identified, the animals were euthenized and bile duct samples were achieved to evaluate the pathologic findings. Results: BBS were verified in all animals. Cholangitis were detected on endoscopic findings of day 14 in all the animals of 3 groups, but not significant. Bile duct perforations occurred in 1 swine (n = 1, 100%) for 100 W group, and 1 swine (n = 7, 14.3%) for 80 W group. There was no major complication (n = 4, 0%) in 60 W group. All benign strictures were proven pathologically. The pathologic findings resembled BBS in human. Conclusion: The application of endobiliary RFA with 60 W-electrical power resulted in a safe and reproducible swine model of BBS. Key Word(s): 1. radiofrequency ablation; 2. bile duct stricture; 3. swine Presenting Author: HIROYUKI TAMAKI Additional Authors: TERUYO NODA, YUMIKO MORIOKA, SOUICHI ARASAWA, MASAKO IZUTA, ATSUSHI KUBO, CHIKARA OGAWA, TOSHIHIRO MATSUNAKA, MITSUSHIGE SHIBATOGE Corresponding Author: HIROYUKI TAMAKI Affiliations: Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross

Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital Objective: Increasing evidence has reported the usefulness of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) for endoscopic retrograde Lapatinib manufacturer cholangiography (ERC) in postoperative patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy. However, the technical limitations or parameters of SBE necessitate the use of special endoscopic instrumentation or the replacement endoscope with another one through the overtube. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel SBE approach using PCF-PQ260L (with passive bending and a high-force transmission; working length, 168 cm; working channel diameter, 2.8 mm; Olympus Medical Systems Corp., Tokyo, Japan) in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy, without the

use of special or prototype instrumentation or enteroscope replacement. Methods: Between February 2012 and March MCE 2014, 19 modified SBE-assisted ERC procedures were performed in 14 postoperative patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy (Roux-en-Y gastrectomy in five, Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in three, Billroth-II gastrectomy in two, pancreatoduodenectomy in two, and gastrojejunostomy in two). In all cases, a side hole was made 110 cm from the distal end of the overtube. ERC was performed using a PCF-PQ260L inserted through the side hole into the gastrointestinal tract. We retrospectively evaluated the success rate of reaching the blind end, the mean time required to reach the blind end, the diagnostic success rate, the therapeutic success rate, the mean procedure time, and complications.

Scanning EM of freeze-fractured cells also revealed globules with

Scanning EM of freeze-fractured cells also revealed globules within cytoplasmic bridges traversing the chloroplast, presumably representing the pathway of migration. Close alignments of globules with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes were also NVP-BGJ398 in vivo observed following VHL illumination. We propose that light-induced globule migration is regulated by the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport system. Possible mechanisms of actin-based globule migration are discussed. “
“The LI818 proteins and their Lhcx homologs in diatoms are a subgroup of the light-harvesting (LHC) antenna family, suspected of being involved in photoprotection

and stress resistance. In this work, we report that the transcription

of three LI818–like genes in Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle et Heimdal (Lhcx1, Lhcx5, and Lhcx6) was down-regulated under iron or copper deprivation and when both trace metals were limiting, as was the case for Lhcf4, one of the standard light-harvesting genes. By contrast, the protein encoded by Lhcx1 was clearly up-regulated under iron limitation, suggesting that this gene is independently regulated at transcriptional and translational levels. In general, copper starvation had less effect on the expression of light-harvesting protein genes than iron deprivation, reflecting the different roles of iron and copper in photosynthetic check details function, that is, as an essential part of the electron transport chain versus as a cofactor for enzymes required to

deal with the reactive oxygen species that result from inhibition of electron flow. Our results suggest that the Lhcx1 protein may be involved in stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus when decreased nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) results from Fe deficiency. “
“Fifty-three strains of the genus Aphanizomenon isolated from Chinese waters were employed to conduct morphological examination and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, rbcLX (RUBISCO), and cpcBA-IGS gene regions. Based on morphological characteristics, the examined strains were divided into three morphotypes [Aph. flos-aquae Bréb. ex Bornet et Flahault, MCE Aph. gracile Lemmerm., and Aph. issatchenkoi (Usacer) Proshk.-Lavr.]. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and rbcLX showed that Aphanizomenon strains could be divided into three main clades (Clade A of Aph. flos-aquae, Clade B of Aph. gracile, and Clade C of Aph. issatchenkoi), but two additional clades formed by Aph. ovalisporum and Aph. aphanizomenoides were detected in the 16S rDNA-based topology. All Aph. issatchenkoi strains contained an additional 175 nucleotides from the 779 to 954 nucleotide location in rbcLX region, compared with strains of Aph. flos-aquae and Aph. gracile. The cpcBA-IGS-based phylogenetic tree revealed that Aph. issatchenkoi strains were not discriminated from Aph.